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The earth makes constant movements in space. These movements are called rotation and translation. Follow the explanations below about each of them.
Rotation is the movement where the earth rotates around its own axis. This movement happens counterclockwise and lasts exactly 23 hours 56 minutes 4 seconds and 9 hundredths to complete, being responsible for day and night.
When one side of the planet is toward the sun, it is day, and hence the opposite is night. Without the movement of Rotation there would be no life on Earth, as this movement plays a key role in balancing the temperature and chemical composition of the atmosphere.
The earth's rotation movement occurs from west to east, ie the eastern portion sees the sunrise first than the west. As an example we can cite Brazil and Japan, where the time difference is exactly 12 hours. Thus, when in Japan it is 6am in the morning, in Brazil it is 6pm in the afternoon.
The movement of translation is that which the planet Earth performs around the Sun along with the other planets. The time required to complete a lap around the Sun is 365 days, 5 hours and about 48 minutes and occurs at an average speed of 107,000 km per hour.
The time it takes for the planet to go full circle around the sun is called the year. The calendar year, accepted by convention, has 365 days. As the sidereal year, or the concrete time of the translation movement, is 365 days and 6 hours, every four years we have a year of 366 days, which is added to our calendar in February and named leap year.
The movement of translation is responsible for the four seasons of the year: summer, autumn, winter and spring, which occur due to the different locations of the earth in space.