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The Carrack Jesus of Lubeck

The Carrack Jesus of Lubeck



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How England’s first slave trader lured Africans on his ‘Jesus’ ship and sold them into slavery

Michael Eli Dokosi is a journalist and a formidable writer with a decade's experience. He is a blogger, voice-over artist and MC. Dokosi is fluid with both spoken and written communication. He is for the African cause and reckons Africa shall regain its rightful place in world affairs soon.

Although the English, later on, became notable African enslavers, the trade has its origins in the bosom of the Portuguese and Spanish.

The historical record holds that in 1502, Juan de Córdoba of Seville became the first merchant to send an African slave to the New World. Since it was only in its early stages, merchants were allowed by the Spanish authorities to sell only one to three enslaved Africans.

By 1504, a small group of Africans, likely slaves, who were captured from a Portuguese vessel, made their way to the court of King James IV of Scotland.


Contents

English carrack was loaned in the late 14th century, via Old French caraque, from carraca, a term for a large, square-rigged sailing vessel used in Spanish, Italian and Middle Latin.

These ships were called caravela or nau in Portuguese and Genoese, carabela or nao in Spanish, caraque or nef in French, and kraak in Dutch.

The origin of the term carraca is unclear, perhaps from Arabic qaraqir "merchant ship", itself of unknown origin (maybe from Latin carricare "to load a car" or Greek καρκαρίς "load of timber") or the Arabic القُرْقُورُ (al-qurqoor) and from thence to the Greek κέρκουρος (kerkouros) meaning approximately "lighter" (barge) (literally, "shorn tail", a possible reference to the ship's flat stern). Its attestation in Greek literature is distributed in two closely related lobes. The first distribution lobe, or area, associates it with certain light and fast merchantmen found near Cyprus and Corfu. The second is an extensive attestation in the Oxyrhynchus corpus, where it seems most frequently to describe the Nile barges of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Both of these usages may lead back through the Phoenician to the Akkadian kalakku, which denotes a type of river barge. The Akkadian term is assumed to be derived from a Sumerian antecedent. [2] A modern reflex of the word is found in Arabic and Turkish kelek "raft riverboat". [3]

By the Late Middle Ages the cog, and cog-like square-rigged vessels equipped with a rudder at the stern, were widely used along the coasts of Europe, from the Mediterranean, to the Baltic. Given the conditions of the Mediterranean, galley type vessels were extensively used there, as were various two masted vessels, including the caravels with their lateen sails. These and similar ship types were familiar to Portuguese navigators and shipwrights. As the Portuguese gradually extended their trade ever further south along Africa's Atlantic coast during the 15th century, they needed larger, more durable and more advanced sailing ships for their long oceanic ventures. Gradually, they developed their own models of oceanic carracks from a fusion and modification of aspects of the ship types they knew operating in both the Atlantic and Mediterranean, generalizing their use in the end of the century for inter-oceanic travel with a more advanced form of sail rigging that allowed much improved sailing characteristics in the heavy winds and waves of the Atlantic Ocean and a hull shape and size that permitted larger cargoes. In addition to the average tonnage naus, some large naus (carracks) were also built in the reign of John II of Portugal, but were only widespread after the turn of the century. The Portuguese carracks were usually very large ships for their time, often over 1000 tons [ clarification needed ] , [4] and having the future large naus of the India run and of the China and Japan trade, also other new types of design.

A typical three-masted carrack such as the São Gabriel had six sails: bowsprit, foresail, mainsail, mizzensail and two topsails.

In the middle of the 16th century the first galleons were developed from the carrack. The galleon design came to replace that of the carrack although carracks were still in use as late as the middle of the 17th century due to their larger cargo capacity.

Starting in 1498, Portugal initiated for the first time direct and regular exchanges between Europe and India—and the rest of Asia thereafter—through the Cape Route, a journey that required the use of larger vessels, such as carracks, due to its unprecedented length, about 6 months.

On average, 4 carracks connected Lisbon to Goa carrying gold to purchase spices and other exotic items, but mainly pepper. From Goa, one carrack went on to Ming China in order to purchase silks. Starting in 1541, the Portuguese began trading with Japan, exchanging Chinese silk for Japanese silver in 1550 the Portuguese Crown started to regulate trade to Japan, by leasing the annual "captaincy" to Japan to the highest bidder at Goa, in effect conferring exclusive trading rights for a single carrack bound for Japan every year. In 1557 the Portuguese acquired Macau to develop this trade in partnership with the Chinese. That trade continued with few interruptions until 1638, when it was prohibited by the rulers of Japan on the grounds that the ships were smuggling Catholic priests into the country. The Japanese called Portuguese carracks "Black Ships" (kurofune), referring to the colour of the ship's hulls. This term would eventually come to refer to any western vessel, not just Portuguese.

    , in which Christopher Columbus made his first voyage to America in 1492. , flagship of Vasco da Gama, in the 1497 Portuguese expedition from Europe to India by circumnavigating Africa.
  • Flor do Mar or Flor de la Mar, as it was called, served over nine years in the Indian Ocean, sinking in 1512 with Afonso de Albuquerque after the conquest of Malacca with a huge booty, making it one of the legendary lost treasures. , the first ship in history to circumnavigate the globe (1519 to 1522), and the only survivor of Magellan's expedition for Spain.
  • La Dauphine, Verrazzano's ship to explore the Atlantic coast of North America in 1524.
  • Grande Hermine, in which Jacques Cartier first navigated the Saint Lawrence River in 1535. The first European ship to sail on this river past the Gulf.
  • Santo António, or St. Anthony, the personal property of King John III of Portugal, wrecked off Gunwalloe Bay in 1527, the salvage of whose cargo almost led to a war between England and Portugal.
  • Great Michael, a Scottish ship, at one time the largest in Europe.
  • Mary Rose, Henri Grâce à Dieu and Peter Pomegranate, built during the reign of Henry VIII — English military carracks like these were often called great ships.
  • Grace Dieu, commissioned by Henry V of England. One of the largest ships in the world at the time.
  • Santa Catarina do Monte Sinai, a war ship built in India by the Portuguese
  • Santa Anna, a particularly modern design commissioned by the Knights Hospitaller in 1522 and sometimes hailed as the first armoured ship.
  • Jesus of Lübeck, chartered to a group of merchants in 1563 by Queen Elizabeth. Jesus of Lübeck became involved in the Atlantic slave trade under John Hawkins.
  • Madre de Deus, which was seized by the Royal Navy off Flores Island. Built in Lisbon during 1589, she was one of the world's largest ships. She was captured by the English in 1592 with an enormously valuable cargo from the East Indies that is still considered as the second-largest treasure ever captured.
  • Cinco Chagas presumed to have been the largest and richest ship to ever sail to and from the Indies until then, it exploded and sank at the action of Faial in 1594. , Portuguese carrack which was seized by the Dutch East India Company off Singapore in 1603.
  • Nossa Senhora da Graça, Portuguese carrack sunk in a Japanese attack near Nagasaki in 1610
  • Peter von Danzig, ship of the Hanseatic League in 1460s-1470s.
  • La Gran Carracca, the ship of the Order of St. John during their rule over Malta. [5]

Famous nau Frol de la Mar (launched in 1501 or 1502), in the 16th-century "Roteiro de Malaca"


Contents

The dates for ships before 1485 are probably listed using the contemporary English convention of the first day of the year being 25 March (Lady Day).

In the sections listing warships in the English/Royal Navy from 1485 onwards, the dates have been quoted using the modern convention of the year starting on 1 January, where this information is available. All dates are given in the Julian Calendar ("Old Style").

The following list is based extensively upon that provided in Michael Oppenheim's History of the Administration of the Royal Navy and in Volume 1 of William Laird Clowes's The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to 1900.

  • Trinity – Dismantled c. 1409, materials used for Trinity Royal
  • Goodgrace (c. 1400)
  • Le Carake (ex-GenoeseSancta Maria & Sancta Brigida, captured 1409)
  • Christopher 5 (1410/12) – Holk (similar to a cog)
  • Trinity Royal (1416)
  • Jesus (c. 1416)
  • George (ex-Genoese carrack?, captured 1416) – To Venice 1424
  • Marie Hampton (ex-Genoese carrack ?, captured 1416)
  • Marie Sandwich (ex-Genoese carrack ?, captured 1416)
  • Agase (ex-Genoese carrack ?, captured 1416) – Wrecked on mudflats c. 1418
  • Andrew (ex-Genoese carrack Galeas Negre, captured 1417)
  • Peter (ex-Genoese carrack ?, captured 1417)
  • Paul (ex-Genoese carrack Vivande, captured 1417)
  • Christopher Spayne (ex-Genoese Pynele . captured 1417) – Sold 1423
  • Marie Spayne (ex-Spanish ?, captured 1417)
  • Holigost Spayne [Holy Ghost of Spain] (ex-Spanish Santa Clara, captured 1417)
  • Grace Dieu (1418) – Lightning and fire, 1439
  • Grace Dieu (1449) – rebuilt 1473, BU c. 1487
  • Peter – Abandoned 1462
  • Mary 48
  • George
  • Edward Howard (c. 1466, ex-Portuguese ?, captured 1479)
  • Governor (1485)

The lists for the Tudor period are taken primarily from Arthur Nelson's The Tudor Navy and David Childs's Tudor Sea Power (cited in references at the end of this article).

Where applicable, number of main guns follows name (see Rating system of the Royal Navy). Note that long-lived ships could be rearmed several times. Many earlier ships went through periodic repairs and rebuildings (many now unrecorded) during which their dimensions and their armament changed considerably.

Henry VII (additions 1485–1509) Edit

The number of guns listed in various sources is not really relevant most of the large number quoted in contemporary records were small anti-personnel weapons, and the number of these would vary from time to time (changes usually unrecorded). Accordingly, the figures have been omitted.

  • Carvel of Ewe (purchased 1487) – last mentioned 1518
  • Regent (ex-Grace Dieu) (built 1488) – burnt at the Battle of St Matthieu, 1512
  • Sovereign (ex-Trinity Sovereign) (built 1488) – rebuilt 1509, last mentioned 1525
  • Michael (1488, a prize taken from the Scots not to be confused with the much larger Scottish carrack Michael) – last mentioned 1513
  • Margaret (1490, a prize taken from the Scots) – deleted before 1509
  • Mary Fortune (prototype galleass built 1497) – renamed Swallow when rebuilt 1512, deleted 1527
  • Sweepstake (prototype galleass built 1497 in Portsmouth what is thought by some to be the UK's first dry dock.) – deleted 1527

Henry VIII (additions 1509–1547) Edit

Heavy (bronze) guns mounted on carriages only appeared during this reign. The concept of cutting gunports into the lower deck emerged early in the period, and relatively few heavy guns were carried. Even the largest would only have heavy guns numbering in single figures, the remainder being small anti-personnel weapons.

Ships Edit

These were described simply as ships, most were probably carracks)

    • Mary Rose (1509) – rebuilt 1536, sank 1545, starboard-side remains recovered 1982 and preserved at Portsmouth
    • Peter Pomegranate (1510) – rebuilt 1536, deleted 1552
    • Jennet Prywin (ex-Scottish Andrew Barton, captured 1511, originally Danish) – deleted 1514
    • Lion (ex-Scottish privateer prize, captured 1511) – sold 1513
    • Anne Gallant (built 1512) – wrecked 1518
    • Christ (ex Christ of Lynn, purchased 1512) – captured by Barbary pirates 1515
    • Dragon (built 1512) – last recorded 1514
    • John Baptist (purchased 1512) – wrecked 1534
    • Mary George (ex Mary Howard, purchased 1512) – last recorded 1526
    • Mary James (ex James of Hull, purchased 1512) – last recorded 1529
    • Lizard (purchased 1512) – last recorded 1522
    • Great Nicholas (ex Nicholas Reede, purchased 1512) – deleted by 1522
    • Great Bark 63 (built 1512) – sold 1531
    • Little Barbara or Barbara of Greenwich (1512) – last recorded 1514
    • Black Bark or Christopher (1513) – last recorded 1514
    • Henry Hampton (purchased 1513) – hulked 1521 and not later recorded
    • Mary Imperial (1513) – last recorded 1525
    • Henri Grâce à Dieu ("Great Harry") 186 (1514) – rebuilt 1539, renamed Edward 1547, but accidentally burned 1553.
    • Great Elizabeth (ex Salvator von Lubeck, purchased 1514) – wrecked 1514.
    • Great Galley (built 1515) – rebuilt 1542 as a ship and renamed Great Bark
    • Less Bark (1517) – rebuilt 1536 and renamed Small Bark, last recorded 1552
    • Mary Gloria (purchased 1517) – last recorded 1522
    • Katherine Bark (built 1518) – last recorded 1525
    • Bark of Bullen (captured 1522 from the French) – last recorded 1525
    • Bark of Murless (ex Bark of Morlaix, captured 1522 from the French) – last recorded 1530
    • Magdeline (ex Mawdlyn of Deptford, 1522) – last recorded 1525
    • Mary and John (Spanish galleon) – last recorded 1528
    • John of Greenwich (captured 1523) – last recorded 1530
    • Primrose (built 1523) – rebuilt 1538, sold 1555
    • Minion (built 1523) – rebuilt 1536, given away 1549
    • Mary Guildford (built 1524) – last recorded 1539
    • Trinity Henry (1530) – sold 1558
    • Sweepstake (built 1535) – condemned 1559
    • Mary Willoughby (built 1535) – captured by the Scots 1536 but retaken 1547, rebuilt 1551, sold 1573
    • Matthew (ex Matthew Gonson, purchased 1539) – last recorded 1558
    • Pansy (built 1543) – condemned 1558
    • Artigo (ex Ferronière, captured 1543 from the French) – sold 1547
    • Jesus of Lübeck (ex-Hanseatic League carrackJesus von Lübeck, purchased 1544) – sunk by Spanish 1568
    • Marryan (ex-Hanseatic League Morian Murryan, purchased 1544) – sold 1551
    • Struss (ex-Hanseatic League Struce of Dawsky, purchased 1544) – sold 1552
    • Mary Hambrough (ex-Hanseatic League, purchased 1544) – sold 1558
    • Christopher of Bream (purchased 1545) – sold 1556
    • Mary Thomas (captured 1545) – last recorded 1546
    • Mary James (captured 1545) – last recorded 1546
    • Mary Odierne (captured 1545) – last recorded 1546
    • Trinity (captured 1545) – last recorded 1546
    • Sacrett (captured 1545) – condemned 1559
    • Hope Bark (1546) – last recorded 1548
    • George 28 (purchased 1546)

    Carracks Edit

    These were specifically mentioned as such, although most of the "ships" above were probably carracks also.

      • Gabriel Royal (ex Genoese, purchased 1512)
      • Katherine Fortune (ex Genoese Katarina Fortileza, purchased 1512)
      • Mary Loret (ex Genoese Maria de Larreto, requisitioned 1514, but returned later in the same year)
      • Great Barbara (ex Mawdelyn, purchased 1513) – last recorded 1524

      Galleys Edit

        • Henry Galley (built 1512) – lost 1513
        • Rose Galley (1512) – last recorded 1521
        • Kateryn Galley (1512) – last recorded 1527
        • Galley Subtile (built 1543) – listed as a gallease 1546, condemned 1560
        • Mermaid (ex Galley Blanchard, captured 1545) – last recorded 1563

        Galleasses Edit

        The galleass was a compromise between the sleek lines and underwater shape of the galley and the broadside guns of the carrack in this sense it was the predecessor of the galleon. Primarily sailing warships, with oars as ancillary means of propulsion. Twelve were built for Henry VIII in three groups between 1536 and 1546, and two further vessels of the type were captured from the Scottish Navy and added to the English fleet. As the oars were found to detract from their sailing performance, they were removed by the time of Henry's death and in 1549 all fourteen galleasses were re-classed as 'ships'. Those in good condition were rebuilt as small galleons in 1558 (six) or 1570 (two).

        First group These four vessels were three-masted galleasses, each with a low forecastle and three pairs of gunports set along the rowing deck.

        • Lion (1536) – taken to pieces 1552
        • Jennet (1539) – rebuilt as a galleon 1558
        • Dragon (1542) – taken to pieces 1552
        • Greyhound (1545) – rebuilt as a galleon 1558

        Second group The four ships built to this type (together with two similar vessels captured from the Scots) were four-masted galleasses with a higher forecastle. They also had three or four pairs of gunports on the lower deck, but also a couple of smaller pairs on the half-deck above.

        • New Bark (1543) – rebuilt as a galleon 1558
        • Swallow (1544) – rebuilt as a galleon 1558
        • Unicorn (captured 1544 from the Royal Scots Navy) – taken to pieces 1552
        • Salamander (built 1537 in France and captured 1544 from the Royal Scots Navy) – condemned 1559
        • Grand Mistress (1545) – sol to take to pieces 1552
        • Anne Gallant (1545) – gone by 1560

        Last group Also four-masted, these were flush-decked vessels, with the forecastle joined to the half-deck to form a continuous upper deck.

          (1546) – rebuilt as a galleon 1558 38 (1546) – rebuilt as a galleon 1558 26 (1546) – rebuilt as a galleon 1570 (1546) – rebuilt as a galleon 1570

        Other small vessels Edit

        These were classed as pinnaces

          • Great Zebra (1522) – last recorded 1525
          • Less Zebra (1522) – last recorded 1525
          • Mary Grace (a hoyMary of Homflete, captured 1522 from the French) – last recorded 1525
          • Great Pinnace (1544, but may have been the Great Zabra renamed) – last recorded 1545
          • Less Pinnace (1544, but may have been the Less Zabra renamed) – last recorded 1549
          • Falcon (1544) – listed as a ship from 1557, last recorded 1578
          • Roo (built 1545) – captured by the French 1547
          • Marlion or Martin (captured from the French 1545) – last recorded 1549
          • Saker (built 1545) – listed as a ship from 1557, last recorded 1565
          • Hind (built 1545) – listed as a ship from 1557, sold 1557
          • Brigantine (built 1545) – captured by the French 1552
          • Hare (built 1545) – sold 1573
          • Phoenix (purchased 1546) – listed as ship from 1557, rebuilt 1558 and sold 1573
          • Trego Ronnyger (1546) – last recorded 1549

          Also in 1546, thirteen armed rowbarges of 20 tons each were built – Double Rose, Flower de Luce (captured by the French in 1562), Sun, Harp, Cloud in the Sun, Hawthorne, Three Ostrich Feathers, Falcon in the Fetterlock, Portcullis, Rose in the Sun, Maidenhead, Roseslip and Gillyflower. The first three of these were rebuilt in 1557–58 and classed as pinnaces, the next five named above were sold in 1548–49 (for £154.4.0d each) and the last five were condemned in 1552.

          Edward VI (additions 1547–1553) Edit

          Notwithstanding the considerable number of minor additions below, few significant vessels were added during this brief reign, and the majority of those that were added are prizes. Except where a fate is stated below, all the following were only listed as king's ships in the year quoted in brackets, and did not appear subsequently in records.

            • Black Pinnace 17 (1548)
            • Spanish Shallop 7 (1548)
            • Great Bark Aiger (1549)
            • Black Galley (captured 1549) – retaken by the French in the same year
            • Swift (1549) – listed to 1558
            • Moon 12 (1549) – wrecked 1553 off West Africa
            • Seven Stars (1549) – listed to 1558
            • Mary Norwell (1549)
            • John (captured 1549)
            • Lion (ex-Royal Scots Navy, captured 1549)
            • Margaret (1549)
            • Nicholas (captured 1549)
            • Katherine (captured 1549)
            • Small Swallow (1549)
            • Bark of Bullen (1550) – given away in 1553
            • Jer Falcon (1550) – condemned 1558
            • Edward Bonaventure (1551) – wrecked 1556 at Aberdeen.

            Mary I (additions 1553–1558) Edit

            Contrary to the subsequent Elizabethan propaganda that Mary's reign neglected the Navy, this brief reign saw the addition of the first real galleons (all Henry's new or rebuilt big ships had been carracks) – the first three detailed below – and the rebuilding of six former galleasses to the galleon concept, as well as the commencement of a larger vessel ordered under the name Edward, which was to be launched as Elizabeth Jonas in the first few months of Elizabeth's reign.

              Galleons
                38 (1554) 38 (1556) (or just Lion) 38 (1557) (rebuilt in 1558 from galleass of 1539) – deleted 1589 (rebuilt in 1558 from galleass of 1543) – condemned 1565 (rebuilt in 1558 from galleass of 1544) – rebuilt again 1580 (rebuilt in 1558 from galleass of 1545) – wrecked 1563 (rebuilt in 1558 from galleass of 1546) – deleted 1568 (rebuilt in 1558 from galleass of 1546) – deleted 1568

              Note the number of guns given above is nominal. The much greater figures usually quoted include small/light cast-iron (anti-personnel) weapons, whereas the figures quoted here reflect the approximate number of carriage-mounted heavy bronze guns positioned on the lower or upper deck for anti-ship fire.

              Elizabeth I (additions 1558–1603) Edit

              • Galleons
                Note that the Primrose and Victory, purchased in 1560, were originally classed as "ships" rather than galleons, but the latter was rebuilt as a galleon in 1586.
                  56 (built 1557–1559) – rebuilt in 1597–98 34 (built 1559) – rebuilt in 1604 (built 1561) – rebuilt in 1595–96 40 (built 1564) – rebuilt in 1598–99 (purchased 1567) – sometimes called Elizabeth Bonaventure. Rebuilt 1581 BU 1611. 37 (built 1570) – the prototype "race-built" galleon – BU 1604 (rebuilt in 1570 from galleass of 1546) – deleted 1589 (rebuilt in 1570 from galleass of 1546) – deleted 1605 41 (built 1573) – BU 1645 (built 1573) – rebuilt 1592 (built 1577) – sunk 1591 in action against Spanish (built 1588) – captured by the Spanish in July 1594 (rebuilt in 1580 from ship of 1562) – broken up 1599 38 (rebuilt in 1582 from ship of 1557) – rebuilt again in 1609 when renamed Red Lion (although usually each version was contracted to Lion) 38 (rebuilt in 1584 from Philip and Mary of 1556) – rebuilt 1603 again and renamed Nonsuch. 40 (built 1586) – Rebuilt 1617 [1] 40 (built 1586) – Rebuilt 1615 [1] 44 (built 1587) – Built 1587 as the Ark Ralegh as a private venture for Sir Walter Ralegh, but purchased for the Queen while building and renamed Ark Royal. Rebuilt 1608 when renamed Anne Royal wrecked 1636. (built 1587) – condemned 1601. 38 (rebuilt 1589 from ship of 1556) – condemned 1618. 46 (built 1590) – rebuilt in 1614, sold 1650 46 (built 1590) – sunk as a breakwater 1618
              • Answer 21 (built 1590) – sold 1629
              • Advantage 18 (built 1590) – burned 1613
              • Crane 24 (built 1590) – sold 1629
              • Quittance 25 (built 1590) – condemned 1618 39 (built 1590) – rebuilt 1612–15, sold 1650 (built 1594) – BU 1645 40/48 (built 1595) – also known as Repulse', rebuilt 1610 [1] 29 (built 1596) – converted to lighter 1635
              • Saint Andrew 50 (Spanish San Andreas, captured 1596) – given away 1604
              • Saint Matthew 50 (Spanish San Mateo, captured 1596) – given away 1604
                • Speedwell (captured 1560 from the French) – broken up 1580
                • Trywright (captured 1560 from the French) – broken up 1579
                • Ellynore (presented 1562 by the French) – renamed Bonavolia 1584, sold 1600
                • Mercury (built 1592) – sold 1611
                • La Superlativa (built 1601) – condemned 1618, sold 1629
                • La Advantagia (built 1601) – condemned 1618, sold 1629
                • La Volatillia (built 1602) – condemned 1618, sold 1629
                • La Gallarita (built 1602) – condemned 1618, sold 1629
                • Sprite (captured from the French 1558) – deleted 1559
                • Minion (purchased 1558) – sold 1570
                • Bark of Bullen (built 1669) – deleted 1578
                • Mary Grace (storeship, captured 1560) – deleted 1562 (1562) – rebuilt 1580 as a galleon
                • Post (brigantine, built 1562) – deleted 1566
                • Makeshift (brigantine, built 1563) – deleted 1564
                • Search (brigantine, built 1563) – sold 1564
                • Guide (brigantine, built 1563) – deleted 1563 (1573) – rebuilt 1580 condemned 1603.
                • Sunne, 5-gun pinnace, 1586. First ship recorded built at the Chatham Dockyard[2] (bark, built 1586) – broken up 1618
                • Hart 56
                • San Felipe (ex-Spanish San Felipe, captured 1587) – was not added to the English Navy
                • Black Dog (captured 1590) – not listed after 1590
                • Lion's Whelp (acquired 1590) – lost at sea 1591
                • Primrose Hoy (hoy, built 1590) – condemned 1618
                • French Frigate (pinnace, captured from the French 1591) – renamed Primrose 1612, condemned 1618
                • Pinnace, name unknown, c1592. Armed with set of 12 matched cannon, unlike the mixed cannon usually used at the time. Site discovered and several cannon recovered in 2009 [3]
                • Flight (built 1592) – not listed after 1592
                • Madre de Dios (ex-Portuguese carrack Madre de Dios, captured 1592) – was not added to the English Navy
                • Eagle (hulk, ex Eagle of Lubeck, purchased 1592) – sold 1683
                • Flirt (acquired 1592) – not mwentionred after 1592
                • Hawk (exploration vessel, acquired 1593) – not listed after 1593
                • Minnikin (acquired 1594) – not listed after 1595
                • Francis (exploration vessel, acquired 1595) – captured by Spain 1595
                • Splendid (acquired 1597) – not listed after 1597
                • Daisy (pink, acquired 1599) – not listed after 1599
                • Bear (built 1599) – not listed after 1599
                • Discovery (exploration vessel, acquired 1600) – deleted 1620
                • Lion's Whelp (ketch, purchased 1601) – given away 1625

                Major ships existing in 1618 Edit

                  Ships royal all the ships listed (except Prince Royal) were rebuilds of earlier ships
                    55 (1610) [4] – which, while a new ship, was built as a replacement for the former Victory. 51 [5] (1599) – Sold 1629 40/44 (1615) – Sold 1650 [4] 42 (1608) – ex-Ark Royal, wrecked 1636, refloated and BU 1638? [4]
                    40/48 (1610) – also known as Repulse, BU 1645 [4] 38/40 (1615) – Sold 1650 [4] 29 (1596) – Harbour service (converted to lighter) 1635 [4] 38 (1609) – also known as Lion, rebuilt 1640 [4] (1615) – Rebuilt 1631 [4] 40 (1617) – Sunk at Sheerness 1680 [4] 38 (1603) – Sold c. 1645 [4]
                    30/32 (1614) – BU 1648 [4] 42 (1607) – ex-'Swiftsure, lost 1624 [4] 34/38 (1618) – Burnt 1649 [4]

                  New and Rebuilt Ships, James I (1603–1625) Edit

                  For the first time, under the Stuart monarchy, a division of the Navy into different categories was initiated. The largest of the great ships were categorised as ships royal, while the remainder were grouped as middling ships or small ships.
                  Note that ships royal would under Charles I become the first rank (later first rate) ships similarly, great ships would become the second rank (later second rate) ships middling ships would become the third rank (later third rate) ships and small ships would become the fourth rank (later fourth rate) ships – later to be further sub-divided (about 1650) into fourth, fifth and sixth rates.

                    Ships royal (later, first rank ships)
                      40 guns (1608) – a rebuilding of the Ark Royal of 1587. 51 guns (1610) – a replacement for (not a rebuilding of) the Victory of 1560. 40 guns (1615) – a rebuilding of the ship of 1590.
                      34 guns (1605) – a second rebuilding of the Hope of 1559. 32 guns (1605) – a rebuilding of the Nonpareil of 1584 (itself a rebuilding of the Philip and Mary of 1556. 32 guns (1609) – a second rebuilding of the Golden Lion of 1557. 34 guns (1610) – a rebuilding of the ship of 1596. 34 guns (1613) – a rebuilding of the ship of 1590. 34 guns (1615) – a rebuilding of the ship of 1586. 34 guns (1615) – a rebuilding of the ship of 1586. 42 (1619) – Joined Royalists June 1648, lost September 1651. [4] 42 (1620) – Rebuilt 1666. [4] 42 (1621) – Rebuilt 1654. [4] 42 (1622) – Renamed George 1649 but resumed name St George 1660, hulked 1687 and then sunk as a blockship 1697. [4] 42 (1622) – Renamed Andrew 1649 but resumed name St Andrew 1660, wrecked 1666. [4] 42 (1623) – Sold 1688. [4]
                      29 guns (1607) – a second rebuilding of the Swiftsure of 1592. 28 guns (1614) – a second rebuilding of the ship of 1573. 30 guns (1618) – a second rebuilding of the ship of 1546. 28 (1619) – Burnt 1658 by accident. [4] 28 (1620) – Captured by the Netherlands at the Battle of Dungeness, 1652. [4] 30 (1621) – Blew up and sunk at the Battle of Leghorn, 1653. [4] 30 guns (1620) – built as the Destiny for Sir Walter Ralegh in 1616, and acquired by the Navy in 1620 – sold at Lisbon by the Royalists 1650.
                      18 guns (1613) – not mentioned after 1624. 26 (1623) – Wrecked 1650. [4]

                    New and rebuilt ships, Charles I (1625–1642) Edit

                    Note that this list only included the first part of Charles's reign preceding the English Civil War (i.e. up to 1642), Subsequent acquisitions are listed in the following section.

                      First rank (ships royal)
                        102 (1637) – Renamed Sovereign, renamed Royal Sovereign, rebuilt 1660 [4] First Rank, 70 (rebuilt 1641) – Rearmed to 80, rebuilt again 1663 [4]
                        Second Rank, 40 (rebuilt 1629) – Rearmed to 56 guns by 1660, sunk as a breakwater 1680. Second Rank, 40 (rebuilt 1631) – Rearmed to 56, wrecked, sold 1667 [4] 44 (1632) – Renamed Liberty 1649, wrecked 1650 [4] 42 (1633) – Renamed Paragon 1650, lost 1655 [4] 48 (c. 1634) – rearmed as 60 guns by 1660, sold 1682 [4] 46 (1634) – rearmed as 56 guns by 1660, sold 1688 [4]
                        34 (1634) [4] 34 (1635) – Captured by Netherlands 1653 [4] Third Rank, 40 (rebuilt 1640) – Rebuilt again 1658 [4]

                      Lesser ships Edit

                        10 (1636) – Collision 1641 [4] 12 (1636) – Blown up in action 1656 [4] 14/30 (1637) – Sold 1667 [4] 14/30 (1637) – Wrecked 1668 [4]

                      Captured ships, 1625–1636 Edit

                        (ex-French, captured 1625) 38 (ex-French, captured 1625) (ex-French, captured 1625) (ex-French, captured 1626) (ex-French, captured 1626) (ex-French, captured 1627) 42 (ex-Dutch, captured 1627 from French) (ex-Dunkirker, captured 1635) – Sunk 1638 6 (ex-Dunkirker, captured 1636) – Sold 1657

                      The interregnum between the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the Restoration of royal authority in 1660 saw the full emergence of the ship-of-the-line and its employment during the first Anglo-Dutch War. During this period the English navy technically became first the Commonwealth Navy, later the Protectorate Navy and subsequently the Commonwealth Navy again the prefix "HMS" is thus not applicable to any English warship during the Interregnum.

                      The following lists include ships of the line, i.e. vessels of the first, second, third and fourth rates which were judged fit to stand in the line of battle. Smaller warships of the fifth and sixth rates, and the even smaller unrated vessels, appear in the subsequent section.

                      Under the categorisation as amended in late 1653, the rates were based on the number of men in the established complement of a ship, as follows:

                      • First rate, 400 men and over.
                      • Second rate, 300 men and up to 399.
                      • Third rate, 200 men and up to 299.
                      • Fourth rate, 140 men and up to 199.

                      However, there were numerous exceptions, and ships changed their Rating from time to time.

                      Number of main guns follows name (see rating system of the Royal Navy) The larger ships are listed in pages 159–160 of The Ship of the Line Volume I, by Brian Lavery, published by Conways, 1983, 0-85177-252-8, and more fully in British Warships in the Age of Sail: 1603–1714, by Rif Winfield, published by Seaforth Publishing, 2009, 978-1-84832-040-6. Lesser warships ("below the line") are taken from A History of the Administration on the Royal Navy (sic!) 1509–1660, by Michael Oppenheim, published by the Bodley Head, 1896, as well as from Winfield's book. The frigates listed here are not the type of vessel known as frigates in the 18th and 19th centuries. The term in the 17th century signified a fast vessel, with low superstructure to give more stability.

                      First and second rates (three-decked ships) Edit

                      A programme comprising four second rates of 60 guns each was adopted in 1654. However, of these four ships the Naseby was completed as a first rate, while the Richard was reclassed as a first rate in 1660 (and renamed).

                        First rate
                          80 (1655) – Renamed Royal Charles 1660, captured by the Netherlands, 1667, BU. [6]
                          70 (1658) – Renamed Royal James 1660, burnt 1667. [6] 64 (1656) – Renamed Henry 1660, rearmed to 82, burnt by accident in 1682. [6] 64 (1656) – Blown up by accident in 1665. [6]

                        Early frigates (fourth rates) Edit

                          The 'first' English frigate
                            32 (1645) built as a private venture she was hired by the Navy from 1646, and purchased outright in 1649 – BU 1666 for rebuild [6]
                            32 (1646) – Sold 1698 [6] 34 (1646) – BU 1688 for rebuild [6] 34 (1646) – Wrecked 1664 [6]
                            32 (1647) – BU 1690 for rebuild [6] 32 (1647) – Burnt 1667 [6] 32 (1647) – Captured by the Netherlands at the Battle of Elba, 1652, recaptured 1652, wrecked 1664 [6] 32 (1647) – BU 1681 for rebuild [6]

                          Later frigates (third and fourth rates) Edit

                            Great frigate (second rate)
                              56 (c. 1651) – Wrecked 1652 [6]
                              52 (c. 1650) – Burnt 1653 [6] 50 (c. 1650) – Renamed Mary 1660 [6]
                              48 (c. 1651) – Renamed Dunkirk 1660 [6]
                              48 (c. 1653) – Captured by the Netherlands at the Four Days Battle, 1666 [6] 50 (1654) – Rearmed to 54, rearmed to 60, wrecked 1682 [6] 52 (c. 1653) [6] 52 (c. 1654) – Renamed Dreadnought 1660, rearmed to 62, sank 1690 [6] 52 (c. 1654) – Renamed Revenge 1660, condemned 1678 [6] 52 (c. 1654) – Renamed Anne 1660, blew up 1673 [6] 52 (c. 1654) – Renamed Montague 1660 [6] 52 (c. 1654) – Renamed York 1660, wrecked 1703 [6] 50 (c. 1654) – Renamed Henrietta 1660, wrecked 1689 [6] 52 (c. 1653) – Wrecked 1674 [6] 50 (c. 1654) – Renamed Resolution 1660, burnt at the St. James' Day Battle, 1666 [6]
                              52 (c. 1659) [6]
                              34 (1650) – Blew up 1689 [6] 34 (1650) – Renamed Bonaventure 1660 [6]
                              34 (1650) – Wrecked 1698 [6] 34 (1650) [6] 34 (1650) [6] 34 (1650) [6] 34 (1650) – Burnt 1656 [6] 34 (1650) – Wrecked 1689 [6]
                              34 (1651) – Rearmed to 46, wrecked 1657 [6] 34 (1651) – Wrecked 1671 [6] 38/40 (1653) – Rearmed to 44 [6]
                              40 (1651) – Captured by France at the Battle at The Lizard, 1707 [6] 40 (1652) – Captured by France 1693 [6]
                              40 (1652) – Renamed Kent 1660, wrecked 1672 [6] 38/40 (1652) – Rearmed to 46, blew up 1653 [6] 40 (1653) – Burnt to avoid capture 1692 [6] 38 (1653) – Rearmed to 46 [6]
                              38/40 (1653) – Renamed Swallow 1660, wrecked 1692 [6] 40 (1653) – Renamed Antelope 1660, sold 1693 [6] 38/40 (1654) – Renamed Bredah 1660, wrecked 1666 [6] 38/40 (1654) – Captured by France 1691 [6] 40/48 (1654) – Renamed Mary Rose 1660, – Captured by France 1691 [6] 40 (1654) – Renamed Crown 1660, rearmed to 48 [6] 40 (1654) – Rearmed to 48 [6]
                              44 (1653) – Wrecked 1703 [6] 44 (1653) – BU 1680 [6] 44 (1654) – Renamed Happy Return 1660, captured by France 1691 [6] 44 (1659) – Scuttled 1699 [6] 44 (1660) – BU 1680 [6]

                            Major rebuilds Edit

                              100 (1660) – Rebuilt 1685 [6] 60 (1654) – Captured by the Dutch 1667 [6] 48 (c. 1658) – re-armed at 60 by 1677. Sold 1698 [6]

                            Captures of the First Anglo-Dutch War Edit

                            The following list covers only the major vessels, all taken from the Dutch and added to the Commonwealth Navy as fourth rates several dozen further small vessels were also captured from the Dutch during this war, and added to the Protectorate Navy, usually as fifth rate or sixth rate vessels.

                              36 (ex-Dutch, captured 1652) – captured by Dutch privateers 1654. 36 (ex-Dutch Hasewind, captured 1652) – hulked 1656 and sold 1660. 38 (ex-Dutch Prinses Royaal Maria, captured 1652) – wrecked 1658. 30 (ex-Dutch Dolfijn, captured 1652) – sold 1657. 38 (ex-Dutch Sophia, captured 1652) – sold 1667. 36 (ex-Dutch Ooievaar, captured 1652) – Hulked 1653 and sold 1663. 44 (ex-Dutch, captured 1652) – Hulked 1653 and broken up 1672. 36 (ex-Dutch, captured 1652) – Sold 1656. 36 (ex-Dutch, captured 1652) – Expended as fireship 1673. 32 (ex-Dutch, captured 1652) – burnt by fireship 1653. 36 (ex-Dutch Beer, captured 1652) – given to Ordnance Board 1666. 32 (ex-Dutch, captured 1652) – Sold 1657. 32 (ex-Dutch Samsun, captured 1652) – Sold 1658. 36 (ex-Dutch Fortun, captured 1652) – Sold 1658. 38 (ex-Dutch Zwarte Raaf, captured 1653) – Sold 1654. /Estridge (ex-Dutch Vogelstruys, captured 1653) – hulked 1653, and sunk as a breakwater 1679. 36 (ex-Dutch Vergulde Haan, captured 1653) – Sold 1656. 44 (ex-Dutch Groote Liefde, captured 1653) – recaptured by Netherlands 1665. 38 (ex-Dutch Gecroonde Liefde, captured 1653) – Sold 1656. 36 (ex-Dutch Elias, captured 1653) – Wrecked 1664. 38 (ex-Dutch Westergo, captured 1653) – foundered 1664. 38 (ex-Dutch Sint Mattheus, captured 1653) – Burnt by the Dutch 1667. 34 (ex-Dutch Halve Maan, captured 1653) – sold 1660. 32 (ex-Dutch Rozeboom, captured 1653) – hulked 1664 and sold 1668. 44 (ex-Dutch East Indiaman Roos van Amsterdam, captured 1654) – Sold 1660.

                            Captures from the Royalists Edit

                              30 (ex-Royalist Charles, captured 1649, ex-merchantman Guinea Frigate) – Sold 1667. 30 (ex-Royalist Crowned Lion, captured 1650) – Sold 1658. 32 (ex-Royalist Saint Michael, captured 1651, ex-merchantman Archangel San Miguel) – Sold 1667 42 (ex-Royalist Revenge of Whitehall, captured 1652, ex-merchantman Marmaduke) – sunk as a blockship 1667.

                            Captures from the Portuguese Edit

                              44 (ex-Portuguese, probably the Nossa Senhora da Natividade) – Captured October 1650. There is a small possibility that this may be the same ship as the earlier Convertine of 1620, which had been left behind in Lisbon by the Royalist fleet, but most experts are sceptical. Captured by the Netherlands 1666, and then retaken from the Netherlands by a Scottish privateer in 1667, but not returned to the Royal Navy.
          • A second Portuguese ship, the São Pedro de Lisboa, was also captured in October 1650, but was not added to the English Commonwealth Navy.
          • Captures from the French Edit

              38 (ex-French Jules) – captured 1650, renamed Old Success 1660 and sold 1662 36 (ex-French Croissant) – captured 1652 and sold 1656. 36 (ex-French Don de Dieu) – captured 1652 and expended as a fireship 1666. 36 (ex-French Fortunee) – captured 1652 and sold 1654.

            Other ships Edit

            For ships-of-the-line of the Royal Navy, successor to the Protectorate Navy after 1660, see List of ships of the line of the Royal Navy

            In principle, vessels with an established complement of fewer than 150 were classed (from late 1653) as fifth rate (with between 80 and 139 men), sixth rate (with between 50 and 79 men), or as unrated (with fewer than 50 men). However, there were numerous exceptions, and a large number of vessels changed categories during their service lives.

            • Purchased vessels of the 1640s.
              • Cygnet 18, purchased 1643, sold 1654.
              • Hector 22, purchased 1644, sold 1656.
              • Fellowship 28, captured from Royalists 1643, sold 1662.
              • Warwick 22, captured from Royalists 1643, sold 1660.
              • Globe 24, captured from Royalists 1644, sold 1648.
              • Swann 12, captured from Royalists 1645, wrecked 1653.
              • Satisfaction 20, purchased 1646, wrecked 1662.
                22, built 1651, sunk as a breakwater 1697. 22, built 1651, rebuilt 1689. 22, built 1651, wrecked 1656. 22, built 1651, wrecked 1674.
              • 14, built 1652, sold 1691. 14, built 1652, captured by the Dutch 1665. 14, built 1652, sold 1667.
          • 22, built 1654, sunk 1667. 22, built 1654, wrecked 1655. 22, built 1654, renamed Milford 1660, burnt 1673. 22, built 1654, renamed Eagle 1660, sunk as a breakwater 1694. 22, built 1654, renamed Guernsey 1660, taken to pieces 1693. 22, built 1654, renamed Garland 1660, sold 1698.
        • 22, built 1655, wrecked 1682. 22, built 1655, foundered 1667 after collision. 22, built 1655, wrecked 1690. 22, built 1656, renamed Speedwell 1660, wrecked 1676. 22, built 1656, renamed Richmond 1660, sold 1698. 22, built 1656, destroyed in explosion 1669.
      • 22, built 1657, destroyed in explosion 1672. 24, built 1658, renamed Success 1660, wrecked 1680.
  • (note these six were ketch-rigged, three being classed as sixth rates and three being unrated)


    The Slave Ship Jesus

    JESUS: Horror, despair, suffering, slavery, torture, captivity. The first British slave ship to reach the Americas was known as The Good Ship Jesus.

    King Henry VIII first purchased the 700-ton vessel, then christened Jesus of Lubeck, from Lubeck in Germany. In 1562, Queen Elizabeth agreed to let John Hawkins use the mouldering ship for his excursion.

    A deeply religious gentleman, Hawkins insisted that his crew “serve God daily” and “love one another” as he sailed his ship for Africa. In a short time he had gathered up over 300 Africans “partly by sword and partly by other means.” The other means included promising them free land and riches in the new world.

    Interesting, that. Hawkins had been granted permission to carry Africans to the Americas with the distinct understanding that it would only be “with their own free consent.” Still, he returned home with a handsome profit and ships laden with ivory, hides, and sugar. Queen Elizabeth was livid. She insisted Hawkins’ new business was absolutely detestable and would certainly “call down vengeance from heaven.” Until she realized how profitable it was, that is. Then she quickly changed her tune and joined Hawkins as a full partner. Soon the new slave ship became known as The Good Ship Jesus.

    In 1567, The Good Ship Jesus and five other ships on yet another slaving expedition came up against the Spaniards at St Juan d’Ulloa in New Spain (Mexico). Since the slave trade was still illegal, it was the habit of Spanish colonists to provoke the British ships into a charade of force. After a fair show, they would drop the pretense and buy slaves at a discount. But this time the Spanish attacked the British ships. The Good Ship Jesus, old and cumbersome, sank and the crew was slaughtered. Hawkins escaped with his cousin, Sir Frances Drake.

    Hawkins returned to England where he remained in the service of the Queen. In 1588, after gaining distinction for his pivotal role in defeating the Spanish Armada, he was knighted Sir John Hawkins.

    As for the British slave trade, the rest is bitter history.

    JESUS: Forgivingess. God with us.

    “Consenting to slavery is a sacrilegious breach of trust, as offensive in the sight of God as it is derogatory from our own honor.

    John Adams


    Jesus of Lübeck, the first slave ship to arrive in Africa in 1562

    Jesus of Lübeck, the first British slave ship to arrive in Africa. The ship was chartered by Queen Elizabeth I to a group of merchants in 1563.

    Jesus of Lübeck was an early 16th-century carrack built in the Free City of Lübeck. Around 1540 Henry VIII, King of England, bought the ship, which had previously been used for ceremonial purposes, to expand his fleet.

    During the 1545 French invasion of the Isle of Wight the ship saw action. In an unsuccessful attempt to raise the flagship of Henry VIII, Mary Rose, she and Samson were used after she created during the Battle of the Solent.

    Jesus of Lübeck | Picture by Pinterest

    She was later chartered by Queen Elizabeth I to a group of merchants in 1563. Jesus of Lübeck became involved in the Atlantic slave trade under John Hawkins, who organized four trips between 1562 and 1568 to West Africa and the West Indies.

    300-500 Africans in the Dominican Republic were dropped as slaves by the Jesus.

    Jesus encountered a Spanish fleet off San Juan de Ulúa (modern day Vera Cruz, Mexico) in September 1568 along with some other English ships on the last voyage.

    Jesus was captured by Spanish forces in the resulting battle. The badly damaged vessel later was sold to a local merchant for 601 ducats.




    Information as of: 09.06.2020 01:25:52 CEST

    Changes: All pictures and most design elements which are related to those, were removed. Some Icons were replaced by FontAwesome-Icons. Some templates were removed (like “article needs expansion) or assigned (like “hatnotes”). CSS classes were either removed or harmonized.
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    Yes. Sir John Hawkins had the dubious distinction of becoming the first slave-ship captain to bring Africans to the Americas. Hawkins was a religious gentleman who insisted that his crew “serve God daily” and “love another”. His ship, ironically called “the good ship Jesus,” left the shores of his native England for Africa in October 1562. He arrived at Sierra Leone, and in a short time he had three hundred blacks in his possession. Hawkins claimed to have acquired them “partly by sword and partly by other means.”

    The Good Ship Jesus | The Beginning of the British Slave Trade

    What has come to be referred to as "The Good Ship Jesus" was in fact the "Jesus of Lubeck," a 700-ton ship purchased by King Henry VIII from the Hanseatic League, a merchant alliance between the cities of Hamburg and Lubeck in Germany. Twenty years after its purchase the ship, in disrepair, was leant to Sir John Hawkins by Queen Elizabeth.

    Hawkins, a cousin of Sir Francis Drake, was granted permission from Queen Elizabeth for his first voyage in 1562. He was allowed to carry Africans to the Americas "with their own free consent" and he agreed to this condition. Hawkins had a reputation for being a religious man who required his crew to "serve God daily" and to love one another. Sir Francis Drake accompanied Hawkins on this voyage and subsequent others. Drake, was himself, devoutly religious. Services were held on board twice a day.

    John Hawkins Coat of Arms
    A bound slave adorns John Hawkins' coat of arms.
    Off the coast of Africa, near Sierra Leone, Hawkins captured 300-500 slaves, mostly by plundering Portugese ships, but also through violence and subterfuge promising Africans free land and riches in the new world. He sold most of the slaves in what is now known as the Dominican Republic. He returned home with a profit and ships laden with ivory, hides, and sugar. Thus began the British slave trade.

    On his return to England Queen Elizabeth, livid, assailed Hawkins charging that his endeavor, ", was detestable and would call down vengeance from heaven upon the undertakers." When Elizabeth became fully aware, however, of the profits to be made she joined in partnership with Hawkins and provided him with the "Jesus of Lubeck," a.k.a., "The Good Ship Jesus."

    A later slaving expedition in 1567, consisting of five ships and the "Jesus of Lubeck," met with resistance from the Spaniards at St Juan d'Ulloa in Mexico. Since the slave trade was illegal Spanish colonists usually required a charade of force from British ships, after which they would buy slaves at a discount. This time, however, the Spanish attacked the British ships and the "Jesus of Lubeck," cumbersome and difficult to maneuver, was sunk and the crew slaughtered. Hawkins escaped with Drake on a smaller ship.

    Hawkins, his piratic ambitions dashed, returned to England and remained there in the service of the Queen. He gained distinction for his pivotal role in defeating the Spanish Armada and was knighted in 1588.

    Imaginary being the keyword

    You do know that Jesus is a very common name in Latin America where this ship was headed?
    It has nothing to do with the name of Christ.

    Ironically one of the Portugese ships that Hawkins plundered for slaves was called the Madre De Deus (The Mother of God).

    i even hear say the ancient song ''amazing grace'' was first sung in a slave ship by a slave master/clergy whose slave ship was sinking and he was rescued by the slaves who obviously were wonder swimmers (those slaves may have been from the south south of naija )

    @pres-elect

    Another good one ! His name was Captain Newton and his ship was called the Grace of God.

    You guys are cracking me up.

    LMAO.

    Since the slave-master is an enemy of the slave, if the slave prays to the same God as the master, he is praying to the God that enabled the slavemaster to enslave him. Therefore, that God is the enemy of the slave or captive just as the slave-master is.

    Are we seriously supposed to solve this riddle Oya, give me one sec,
    * Getting down on my knees
    *closes eyes and proceeds to ask God
    *Opens one eye, looks up @Horus and whispers
    * Abeg hold on, am still waiting for reply

    When those slave ships park at a port with their mortars aimed at a village, their captain pops out and demands slaves. What do u expect the people to do?

    ''No we have no slaves'' could mean annihilation for them and their little village.

    The oyibo captain then says to their king. Here's a deal: I'll give you a thousand guns. Go capture slaves from the neighbouring village, or your village is history by tomorrow morning.

    Before you know it, katataka all over the land. The trade then spirals, as each town and village falls into the web of fear, greed, and inhumanity.

    i even hear say the ancient song ''amazing grace'' was first sung in a slave ship by a slave master/clergy whose slave ship was sinking and he was rescued by the slaves who obviously were wonder swimmers (those slaves may have been from the south south of naija )

    As these things go, the trade generally takes on a life of its own as more people and regions become dependent on its operation to maintain their power and position. Whatever you claim is happening today of course, is even less than a trickle in comparison to the ancient trade.

    These things have a way of not vanishing overnight. Instead steady reduction is often the way it goes.

    i will take your advise not to blame evil on religion, but why do people who claim to be religious throw away religion in their mind when they want to do evil? are thy truly religious, or they re mere pretenders? or should we blame them and or the religion that does no rehabilitate their mind firmly enough to remind them and stear them away from evil?

    i will be assume that these people were not christians, but only by lips and not from the heart.

    ^^ please do not be an irritant today.

    pres-elect:
    i even hear say the ancient song ''amazing grace'' was first sung in a slave ship by a slave master/clergy whose slave ship was sinking and he was rescued by the slaves who obviously were wonder swimmers (those slaves may have been from the south south of naija )

    U ar right. His name is JOHN NEWTON

    His name WAS John Newton, but he didn't sing it on a slave ship. He wrote it in 1772, many years after he had turned to God during that storm (1748), abandoned the slave trade(1754) and become a clergyman (1764).

    "Several retellings of Newton's life story claim that he was carrying slaves during the voyage in which he experienced his conversion, but the ship was carrying livestock, wood, and beeswax from the coast of Africa. (Aitken, p. 76.)

    While aboard the ship Greyhound, Newton gained notoriety for being one of the most profane men the captain had ever met. In a culture where sailors commonly used oaths and swore, Newton was admonished several times for not only using the worst words the captain had ever heard, but creating new ones to exceed the limits of verbal debauchery.[11] In March 1748, while the Greyhound was in the North Atlantic, a violent storm came upon the ship that was so rough it swept overboard a crew member who was standing where Newton had been moments before.[d] After hours of the crew emptying water from the ship and expecting to be capsized, Newton and another mate tied themselves to the ship's pump to keep from being washed overboard, working for several hours.[12] After proposing the measure to the captain, Newton had turned and said, "If this will not do, then Lord have mercy upon us!"[13][14] Newton rested briefly before returning to the deck to steer for the next eleven hours. During his time at the wheel he pondered his divine challenge.[12]

    About two weeks later, the battered ship and starving crew landed in Lough Swilly, Ireland. For several weeks before the storm, Newton had been reading The Christian's Pattern, a summary of the 15th-century The Imitation of Christ by Thomas à Kempis. The memory of the uttered phrase in a moment of desperation did not leave him he began to ask if he was worthy of God's mercy or in any way redeemable as he had not only neglected his faith but directly opposed it, mocking others who showed theirs, deriding and denouncing God as a myth. He came to believe that God had sent him a profound message and had begun to work through him.[15]" - Wikipedia

    Bastage: You do know that Jesus is a very common name in Latin America where this ship was headed?
    It has nothing to do with the name of Christ.

    Ironically one of the Portugese ships that Hawkins plundered for slaves was called the Madre De Deus (The Mother of God).

    Mother of God. that's ur Mary dude

    All surrounds ur Christian principles

    Christianity and Islam were crucial advocates of the slave trade

    Though offensive, this is the vid that brought me to this site (via my research & fact-checking).


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vLwUA3CHumk&list=UUtlfyd1Xs9CtxfBNP9_IgAw&index=55

    I know there's a rule against adverts, but I recommend Dusty Smith's YouTube channel, Cult Of Dusty. He destroys religion in very humourous ways, and he's in my top five YouTuber list. He's very, very controversial, vulgar, passionate and outspoken, and his presentation is hilarious. Give him a chance.

    Mother of God. that's ur Mary dude

    All surrounds ur Christian principles

    Christianity and Islam were crucial advocates of the slave trade

    Bastage: You do know that Jesus is a very common name in Latin America where this ship was headed?
    It has nothing to do with the name of Christ.

    Ironically one of the Portugese ships that Hawkins plundered for slaves was called the Madre De Deus (The Mother of God).

    I really wonder if people think before write.

    This is probably going to be the st.u.pid.est excuse this month or even this year.

    So, my friend, you are telling us here with your bare face that in the 1500s, Jesus was a very common name in what we now call Latin America

    And the naming of the first slaveship "The good ship Jesus" had nothing to do with Jesus ?

    Gosh! The lenght of stu.pi.dity that people go to just to defend a fake religion.

    I am embarrassed.
    Where did you go to school, by the way?
    Refunds are clearly overdue.

    I really wonder if people think before write.

    This is probably going to be the st.u.pid.est excuse this month or even this year.

    So, my friend, you are telling us here with your bare face that in the 1500s, Jesus was a very common name in what we now call Latin America

    And the naming of the first slaveship "The good ship Jesus" had nothing to do with Jesus ?

    Gosh! The lenght of stu.pi.dity that people go to just to defend a fake religion.

    I am embarrassed.
    Where did you go to school, by the way?
    Refunds are clearly overdue.


    Was “Jesus” the name of the first slave ship?

    The African Muslims, also known as Moors, even took Europeans as slaves for a time because they were Christians and would not convert to Islam. Christian Europeans would in turn enslave Moors when they captured Muslims during their battles. In fact, Christopher Columbus was aided by a Moor named Pedro Alonso Niño whose mother was a slave in Spain. After Columbus’ findings, a European Christian named John Hawkins sought to make a profit by trading slaves. He had a ship named “Jesus of Lubeck” which he used to transport slaves that he says he obtained “partly by the sword and partly by other means” into the Americas to trade with the Spaniards. Others realized Hawkins discovered a black gold mine. While Hawkins captured many of his slaves by battle with Moors, later European slave traders found it more profitable to trade goods with the Moors for their slaves. Valentim Fernandes even noted about trading alcohol when commenting on a group with Muslims in it saying, they were “drunkards who derive great pleasure from our wine.” This is when Hebrews who would not convert to Islam would have begun to be traded before this many of the slaves from Africa were Moors who were taken by Christians as prisoners of war. But when rum that came from the Americas was used, along with other alcoholic beverages, to obtain slaves the Moors began to trade Hebrew prisoners for goods from the Europeans. Just as it was prophesied by Joel.


    Jesus of Lübeck

    From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

    Jesus of Lübeck was a carrack built in the Free City of Lübeck in the early 16th century. Around 1540 the ship, which had mostly been used for representative purposes, was acquired by Henry VIII, King of England, to augment his fleet. The ship saw action during the French invasion of the Isle of Wight in 1545. She along with Samson were used in an unsuccessful attempt to raise Henry VIII’s flagship, Mary Rose, after she foundered during the Battle of the Solent. She was later chartered to a group of merchants in 1563 by Queen Elizabeth I. Jesus of Lübeck became involved in the Atlantic slave trade and smuggling under John Hawkins, who organized four voyages to West Africa and the West Indies between 1562 and 1568. During the last voyage, Jesus, along with several other English ships, encountered a Spanish fleet off San Juan de Ulúa (modern day Vera Cruz, Mexico) in September 1568. In the resulting battle, Jesus was disabled and captured by Spanish forces. The heavily damaged ship was later sold for 601 ducats to a local merchant.


    Watch the video: Soul to Soul - London Community Gospel Choir with Paul Carrack (August 2022).