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Combat of Alemquer, 9 October 1810

Combat of Alemquer, 9 October 1810

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Combat of Alemquer, 9 October 1810

The combat of Alemquer was the last fighting between the British rearguard and the French cavalry during the retreat into the Lines of Torres Vedras in the autumn of 1810. On the previous day the two forces had clashed at Alcoentre, in a skirmish that began with a rainstorm. This signalled the start of the autumn rains, and the fight on 9 October took place in constant rain. This worked to the advantage of the British and Portuguese, most of whose infantry arrived in the Lines on 9 October, three days before the first French infantry arrived. During 9 October the British cavalry fought to slow down the French vanguard, which was formed by Lamotte’s light cavalry brigade. The rearguard of the rearguard was formed by Linsingen’s squadron of the 1st Hussars of the King’s German Legion, which turned back to charge the French four times in five miles, each time stopping the French retreat. By the end of the day the Hussars had lost two dead, eleven wounded and seventeen missing. They were supported by the 16th Light Dragoons, who lost eight men, and late in the day were joined by troops from Slade’s brigade. The French lost six dead, twenty-two wounded and twenty-one prisoners during the day’s fighting.

By the end of the day the leading French infantry had caught up with their cavalry, and the British retreated back to Alemquer. On the next morning the British cavalry retreated back into the Lines of Torres Vedras, leaving only Craufurd’s Light Division at Alemquer. Craufurd remained in the village long enough to get involved in another minor skirmish, before eventually pulling back into the Lines late in the day. The French vanguard, which was now thirty miles ahead of the main army, did not pass Alemquer until the following day, and only on 11 October did Montbrun’s cavalry begin to discover just what they were facing.

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Combat of Roßlau

The Combat of Roßlau was fought in the War of the Sixth Coalition on 29 September 1813, near Roßlau, Germany. Michel Ney attacked the Swedish bridgehead at the Elbe, to stop the Army of the North from crossing the river. The Swedish commander Johan August Sandels counterattacked and chased the French for 5 km (3 mi) before being forced to retire himself. About 350 Swedes were dead and wounded while the French had at least 1,500, according to Swedish sources. The battle had no strategic effects, but it was one of very few times in the war that a Swedish force was fully committed in battle.

History of the Oktoberfest

On 12 October 1810 Crown Prince Ludwig, who later became King Ludwig I, married the Princess Teresa of Sassonia-Hildburghausen . All the citizens of Munich were invited to attend the celebration held in the fields in front of the city gate to celebrate the happy royal event. Since then, the fields have been called “Theresienwiese” ( “Teresa’s meadow” ) in honour of the princess, shortened to “Wies’n”. The closing ceremony at the Theresienwiese included a horse race, a veritable feast for the whole of Bavaria, the following year the decision to repeat the horse races gave rise to the origin of the Oktoberfest tradition.

It is here that the history of the Oktoberfest begins, the annual celebration that since then, punctuates the life of Munich and Germany, as a permanent and punctual fixture, except on 24 occasions when it was cancelled due to wars or epidemics.

History of Oktoberfest – from 1811 to 1900

In 1811, in order to promote agriculture and the Bavarian economy, an agricultural fair was also organised. The horse race from which everything takes its origin no longer takes place today, in fact the last occasion was in 1960, while the agricultural fair is held once every four years, at the southern end of the Wiesn. In 1813, the celebration was cancelled due to the war against Napoleon. In 1818 the first ride and two swings made their appearance.
From 1819 onwards the citizens of Munich assumed responsibility for the organisation of the festival, making it an annual event. Thereafter, the duration of the Oktoberfest was lengthened and the start date brought forward, to take advantage of the longer and warmer days of September.

Since 1850 the statue of Bavaria built by Johann Baptist Stiglmaier and Ferdinand von Miller on a design by Leo von Klenze and Ludwig Michael Schwanthaler, has “watched over” the Oktoberfest. In 1854 the Oktoberfest was cancelled due to a cholera epidemic. Also in 1866 festivities are suspended as Bavaria was fighting side by side with Austria in the war against Prussia. In 1873 cholera struck again, another year cancelled. In 1885, electric lighting lit up the Oktoberfest tents for the first time.
From 1887 onwards the tradition of the opening parade was resumed, as in the first edition in 1810. From then on in fact, the “Einzug der Festwirte und Brauereien“, led by the Münchner Kindl, has been the official opening ceremony. Since 1892 beer has been served in glass jugs (Maß). Since 1896, due to an initiative by the hosts in collaboration with the brewers, the first large halls were built to replace the old sheds.

History of Oktoberfest – from 1900 to the present day

In 1910, the Oktoberfest celebrated its 100th anniversary with the consumption of about 120,000 litres of beer … a record for that time!
In 1913, the Braurosl was built, the largest tent with 12,000 seats. From 1914 to 1918, the outbreak of the first world war prevented the Oktoberfest from taking place. In 1919 and in 1920, it was instead merely celebrated as an “Autumn festival”. 1923 and 1924 were other years cancelled due to inflation.

In 1933, the swastika replaced the blue and white Bavarian flag. 1939 to 1945 were war years and the Oktoberfest was again cancelled. From 1946 to 1948, as in the years following the first world war, a purely “Autumn Festival” was celebrated in Munich with a lighter beer. In 1950, the current traditional opening ceremony of the festival was introduced: “O ‘zapft is“. The first mayor to tap the barrel was Thomas Wimmer.

In 1960 the horse racing ended. In 1960 the Oktoberfest became the huge festival now recognisable as the one we know today. From 1970, the local gay organisations organise “The Gay days”.

On 26 September 1980, at 22:19 precisely a bomb exploded in a dustbin in a toilet at the main entrance. The bomb was made from a vacuum filled fire extinguisher with 1.39 kg of TNT. Thirteen people lost their lives, more than 201 were wounded, of which 68 were serious. This was the second deadliest terror attack in the Germany’s history after the massacre at Munich, Bavaria. Responsibility for the attack was attributed to Gundolf Köhler from Donaueschingen, a right-wing extremist. He himself died during the attack, operating alone. This theory however leaves several questions unanswered and still has unanswered questions. In 1984 the metal barrels were covered and lined with wood to maintain efficiency and also to observe tradition. Since 2005 onwards, in order to make the Oktoberfest more amenable for the elderly and families, the music has finished at 18.00 and has been limited to 85 decibels.

Since 2008, the law prohibited smoking in all enclosed spaces open to the public. For the Oktoberfest in 2008 there was an exception, although the sale of tobacco is not permitted inside the halls. In 2009, the smoking ban in Bavaria was the subject of clashes during political debates, and more special exemptions were granted to the Oktoberfest tents. At the beginning of 2010 through a referendum held in Bavaria as a result of a public initiative, the smoking ban of 2008 was rigorously reinstituted.

2010 was the 200th anniversary of the Oktoberfest. For the occasion. a horse race took place in historical costumes on the opening day. In the southern part of the Theresienwiese the “History of the Wiesn” (historic Oktoberfest) is held where a special beer is served for the occasion. This background has given visitors a sense of going back in time and reliving the atmosphere of centuries past.

Abraham Goldsmid

English financier and philanthropist born in Holland in 1756 (?) died at Morden, near London, Sept. 28, 1810 third son of Aaron Goldsmid. About 1765 he went to England with his father, and soon entered into partnership with his brother, Benjamin Goldsmid, the two starting in business as bill-brokers about 1777. They afterward took a house in Capel street, and soon became successful bidders for the national loan. Itwas regarded on the Stock Exchange as an unprecedented event that men, till then scarcely known, should succeed in wresting the negotiation of government loans from the hands of the banking clique. This was the first step in their rise to eminence and after having been very successful in negotiating several public loans, they acquired considerable wealth.

After the death of his brother Benjamin in 1808, Abraham continued the operations of the firm. In 1810 the house of Baring & Goldsmid contracted for the government loan of ꌔ,000,000 ($70,000,000). Sir T. Baring, with whom the Goldsmids had been connected in business, died at this juncture and his death added greatly to Goldsmid's many burdens, he having now to struggle alone. In addition, a powerful organization had been formed against the loan, and the resources of the two houses of Baring & Goldsmid combined were scarcely sufficient to combat it. The price of scrip fell daily, and the fortunes of Goldsmid fell with it. At the same time, the East India Company, which had placed in his hands for sale bills of exchange to the value of half a million, became alarmed, and claimed the price of its property. The payment was fixed for Sept. 28, 1810. Goldsmid was unprepared, and on the following morning he was found dead, with a pistol by his side.

(see image) Abraham Goldsmid.

The Goldsmid firm subsequently made great efforts to discharge their liabilities. By 1816 they had paid fully fifteen shillings on the pound and in 1820 Parliament, on the petition of the creditors, annulled the remaining portion of the debts.

Bibliography: Dict. National Biography

The Morning Chronicle, London. Sept. and Oct., 1810

The Times, London, April 12 and 13, 1808

The Morning Post, London, Oct. 9, 1810

Picciotto, Sketches of Anglo-Jewish History, pp. 252-254, 259, London, 1875

Miller Wrongly Set Date for Christ's Return

When will Jesus return? Christ warned that no man knows that day and hour. This has not stopped rash theologians from announcing dates. All have subsequently been disappointed by events. One of the most prominent prediction makers was Baptist preacher William Miller.

Miller gained a large following, predicting that Christ would return on this day, October 22, 1844. His theories were not far-fetched if one accepted interpretations in vogue through much of church history. The argument goes something like this: The prophet Daniel's eighth chapter speaks of 2,300 days. Many of the greatest scholars of the church (Augustine and Bede for example) took these days to stand for years. 490 years (the seventy "weeks" mentioned in Daniel 9:24) were "cut off" from the 2,300 years, leaving 1810 years. It was assumed that Christ died early in 31 ad. with 3-1/2 years of Daniel's 70th week still to run. Adding those 3-1/2 years to 31 ad. brings us to late 34 ad, at which time the 1810 remaining years supposedly began. 1810 + 34 brings us to 1844. Technical considerations placed the date in October 1844.

Under this interpretation, it seemed possible to match actual historical events with the sequence of events in Daniel chapter eleven. Byzantium, the pope, Egypt, Turkey, France and other countries, supposedly fulfilled various predictions derived from the Bible. The whole argument was developed at length and convinced vast numbers of people.

As many as 100,000 followers gathered at the predicted time in makeshift temples and on hillsides to "meet the bridegroom." Maxwell Pierson Gaddis attended one of these rallies and reported the result. When midnight came and Christ had not returned, people grew restless. Some walked out. One person said allowance must be made for differences of latitude and longitude between Palestine and the US. At about one o'clock one of the leaders rose and said "I never did fix upon the precise time myself, and I always told my brethren they would get into trouble if they did but they would not listen to me, but followed other leaders. I believe the most important thing after all is, to be ready. "

Humiliated by what has been called "The Great Disappointment," some Millerites shucked their faith completely. Led by Miller, others formed the Adventists. The majority returned to more traditional churches.

Glenn Hammond Curtiss

Of all the famous aviation pioneers who have been honored for their dedication to the dream of manned flight and their genius for making that dream come true, few can match the creativity and determination of Glenn Hammond Curtiss.

Born in Hammondsport, NY, in 1878, his insatiable curiosity, mechanical ability and ambition soon became evident. By the time he reached his teens, bicycles and speed had become a near-obsession with the young Curtiss. He was a champion bicycle racer for years and naturally progressed to designing and building his own machines. By 1902, Curtiss, with three employees, was manufacturing his own motorcycles under the trade name, “Hercules”. In a measured-mile run at Ormond Beach, Florida, on Jan. 23, 1907, Curtiss’s V8 powered motorcycle was officially clocked at 136.3 mph. On that day, and for years afterward, Glenn Curtiss carried the title, “Fastest Man on Earth”.

Curtiss’s first experience with aviation came when famed balloonist, Thomas Scott Baldwin, ordered a V-twin motorcycle engine to power a lighter-than-air ship. Curtiss’s engine was a success. In 1904, using this early engine, Baldwin’s “California Arrow” became the first successful American dirigible. In 1907, Glenn Curtiss began his aviation career in earnest as a member of the Aerial Experiment Association, a group of men focused on getting a man into the air. In addition to Curtiss, this group included famous inventor, Alexander Graham Bell, F.W. “Casey” Baldwin, J.A.D. McCurdy and U.S. Army Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge.

By this time, the Wright Brothers had already made the first successful controlled flight of a manned aircraft. The Wright Brothers, however, had not allowed public viewing of the flight, and their tendency toward secrecy and continued distrust of the press had resulted in little public notice of the event. It was a mistake that would cost them dearly. On March 12, 1908, the A.E.A. “Red Wing” made the first public flight in America of a heavier-than-air machine with Casey Baldwin at the controls. The craft took off from the frozen surface of Keuka Lake and remained aloft for 20 seconds, covering a distance of 318 feet, 11 inches, before it went down on one wing and crashed. Two months later, the “White Wing” with Curtiss flying it, covered a distance of 1,017 feet in controlled flight. This success was made possible by the addition of “horizontal rudders” (Bell’s term) to the wingtips, a precursor of the aileron.

( The June Bug was designed by Glenn Curtiss and powered by a Curtiss engine. )

Using knowledge gained from the Red Wing and the White Wing, Curtiss built the “June Bug”, outfitted with additional improvements. This airplane responded so well in testing, that Curtiss determined to enter it in competition for the Scientific American trophy. Winning the first leg in the 1908 competition involved flying in a straight line for a distance of one kilometer. On July 4, Curtiss piloted the “June Bug” across Pleasant Valley for a distance of 5,090 feet – 1,810 feet farther than required. No less important, it was the first officially-recognized, pre-announced and publicly-observed flight in America. It won Curtiss the first leg of the trophy and established him as America’s foremost aviation pioneer. In 1909, he flew his “Golden Flyer” a distance of 24.7 miles to establish a new world distance record and win the second leg of the Scientific American trophy. Later that same year, in Rheims, France, competing against Europe’s top aviators, he won the Gordon Bennet Cup speed race, averaging 46 mph. In 1910, when the New York World Newspaper offered a $10,000 prize for the first successful flight between Albany and NYC, following the Hudson River, Curtiss again determined to be first, and did so in a craft he had named the “Hudson Flyer”. He won the prize money, nationwide recognition, and in the process, won the third leg of the Scientific American Competition and permanent possession of the coveted trophy. It was his much-publicized Albany to New York flight that established the airplane as having some practical value. It was even suggested that it might have a wartime use. Some months later, Curtiss gave the first demonstration of aerial bombing to Army and Navy representatives at Keuka Lake. In addition to making the airplane a practical reality, he pioneered in the design of seaplanes and flying boats. His interest in water-flying led to an association with the U.S. Navy that was to form a basis for Naval aviation as we know it today. Naval seaplane, flying boat, and aircraft carrier operations are all a direct result of Curtiss’s influence. A final high point in Curtiss’s aviation career came in 1919, when the U.S. Navy Curtiss NC-4 Flying Boat became the first aircraft to successfully cross the Atlantic Ocean.

Curtiss’s interests were not restricted just to vehicles of transportation. In 1921, he essentially left the aviation business and moved to Florida to become a highly-successful land developer. With friends, he developed the Florida cities of Hialeah, Miami Springs, and Opa-Locka. Opa-Locka was intended to be his crowning achievement, a planned community resembling something from the Arabian Nights. In the spring of 1930, he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Science degree from the University of Miami for his many contributions to the development of the Miami area.

(This was the private home of aviation pioneer Glenn Curtiss, developer of Hialeah, Opa Locka and Miami Springs. The historic site burned down a few years ago. Now the city and private foundation are almost done rebuilding the exterior to the way it was – CHARLES TRAINOR JR, MCT, MIAMI HERALD)

Curtiss’s amazing career was tragically cut short on July 23, 1930. At age 52, while undergoing surgery for appendicitis in Buffalo, NY, he developed a blood clot that ended his life. Glenn Hammond Curtiss was returned to his home town where he rests today in a quiet spot in the Pleasant Valley Cemetery, not far from the site of his historic flight in the “June Bug”.

Curtiss is remembered today as the Father of Naval Aviation and the founder of the American Aircraft Industry.

Have a good weekend, enjoy some quiet time with a good book, and keep friends and family close.

Historical Events on October 27

Roman Emperor Constantine as depicted by Raphael having his Vision of the Cross on October 27, 312
    Saracen invasion of Sardinia Edmund I succeeds Athelstan as King of England Traditional founding of the city of Amsterdam

Victory in Battle

1507 Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque captures the Persian fortress of Ormuz on Hormuz Island

    English troops occupy Montalidier, France Condemned as a heretic, Michael Servetus is burned at the stake just outside Geneva Spanish army under General Spinola occupies Wachtendonk

Event of Interest

1627 English invasion force under George Villiers assaults the French island of Île de Ré

Victory in Battle

1644 Second Battle of Newbury: King Charles I beats parliamentary armies

Event of Interest

1682 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is founded by Englishman William Penn

Event of Interest

1787 Federalist Papers start appearing in New York newspapers under pseudonym "Publius" (written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay)

    Pinckney's Treaty [Treaty of San Lorenzo] signed by Spain and US, establishing the southern boundary of the US and giving Americans right to navigate the Mississippi River The French Army enters in Berlin United States annexes West Florida from Spain Major-General Baron D Chasse bombs Antwerp (Belgium revolution) Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs issues the Extermination Order, which orders all Mormons to leave the state or be exterminated. Dutch railway to Harlingen opens Battle of Boydton Plank Road, VA (Burgess' Mill, Southside Railroad) Second Battle of Fair Oaks, Virginia near Richmond Confederate ship Albemarle torpedoed and sunk by a spar torpedo mounted on a steam launch

Event of Interest

1867 Giuseppe Garibaldi marches on Rome for the second time

Event of Interest

1871 Democratic leader of Tammany Hall NY, Boss Tweed is arrested after the NY Times exposes his corruption

    Architect Henry Hardenberghs Dakota-complex opens in NYC "World Championship" Baseball Series, Sportsman's Park, St. Louis St. Louis Browns rout NY Giants, 18-7 in Game 10 but lose series, 6-4 Hurricane hits coast between Savannah, Georgia & Charleston, South Carlolina 1st Pali Road completed in Hawaii (winds so strong streams flow UP!)

Music Premiere

1901 1st complete performance of Claude Debussy's orchestral composition "Nocturnes"

    First section of New York subway - Lower Manhattan to Broadway Harlem, opened by Interborough Rapid Transit (IRT), fare one nickel

Event of Interest

1913 President Woodrow Wilson says US will never attack another country

    British battleship Audacious sunk by mine Andrew Fisher is replaced as Labour Prime Minister by William 'Billy' Hughes, who will advocate a more active role for Australians in the war Battle of Segale: Negus Mikael, marching on the Ethiopian capital in support of his son Emperor Iyasus V, is defeated by Fitawrari abte Giyorgis, securing the throne for Empress Zauditu. 20,000 women march in a suffrage parade in New York, US Axeman of New Orleans claims last victim League of Nations moves headquarters in Geneva Westinghouse radio station in East Pittsburgh, KDKA is granted a Limited Commercial license by the Department of Commerce 1st commemoration of Navy Day (USA) Dutch 2nd Chamber votes for child labor laws

Event of Interest

1922 In Italy, Liberal Luigi Facta resigns in the face of threats from Mussolini that 'either the Government will be given to us or we will seize it by marching on Rome'

Event of Interest

1927 Queen Wilhelmina opens Meuse-Waal Canal in Nijmegen

    Chuhei Numbu of Japan, sets then long jump record at 26' 2½" SDAP and NVV launches "Plan for Work" in Utrect, Netherlands DuPont announces its new synthetic polyamide fiber will be called "nylon" Chicago Daily Tribune editorialize there will not be war with Japan 5th day of battle at El Alamein: heavy battles/Australian advance

Event of Interest

    "Carib Song" closes at Adelphi Theater NYC after 36 performances 1st edition of Elseviers Weekly newspaper (Elseviers Magazine) Georgi Domitrovs National Front wins Bulgaria elections (78%)

Event of Interest

1947 "You Bet Your Life" with Groucho Marx premieres on ABC radio

Event of Interest

1948 Albert Camus' "L'etat de Siege" premieres in Paris

    Israel recaptures Nizzanim in Negev Léopold Sédar Senghor founds the Senegalese Democratic Bloc (BDS). Paul Creston's 3rd Symphony, "Triumph of St Joan" premieres "My Darlin' Aida" opens at Winter Garden Theater NYC for 89 performances

Event of Interest

1954 President Eisenhower offers aid to South Vietnam Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm

Television Premiere

1954 Walt Disney's 1st TV show, "Disneyland", premieres on ABC

    Benjamin O. Davis Jr. becomes the first African-American general in the United States Air Force. Argentine peso devalued Satomi Myodo, renews Zen nun vows & takes Buddhist name of Daien Myodo

Film Release

1955 "Rebel Without a Cause", directed by Nicholas Ray, starring James Dean and Natalie Wood, is released

    Celal Bayar re-elected president of Turkey WOWL TV channel 15 in Florence, AL (NBC/CBS) begins broadcasting WPTA TV channel 21 in Fort Wayne, IN (ABC) begins broadcasting General Ayub Khan succeeds Iskander Mirza as President of Pakistan WEDU TV channel 3 in Tampa-St Petersburg, FL (PBS) begins broadcasting Rare Pacific hurricane kills 2,000 in Western Mexico AL admits LA & Washington to the league Singer Ben E. King records "Spanish Harlem" & "Stand By Me" 1st Saturn launch vehicle makes an unmanned flight test American Basketball League starts play Outer Mongolia & Mauritania become 102nd & 103rd members of UN USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya & Sary Shagan USSR "Beyond the Fringe" opens at John Golden Theater NYC for 673 performances

The Man Who Saved The World

1962 Black Saturday during the Cuban Missile Crisis: An American spy plane is shot down over Cuba and the navy drops warning depth charges on Soviet submarines

    US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Johnston Island US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site The plane of Enrico Mattei, Italian oil industry's most powerful figure, crashes in mysterious circumstances Bob Simpson completes 359 for NSW v Qld at Gabba

NHL Record

1963 Detroit Red Wings right wing Gordie Howe scores 544th career goal in 6-4 loss to Montreal Canadiens, tying Maurice Richard's all-time NHL regular season record

Event of Interest

1969 Ralph Nader sets up a consumer organization known as Nader's Raiders

    St Vincent & Grenadines gains associated status with Britain "Light, Lively & Yiddish" opens at Belasco Theater NYC for 87 performances Republic of Congo-Kinshasa becomes Republic of Zaire Gerard Newe becomes the first Catholic to serve in any Northern Ireland government since 1920 Newe was appointed to try to improve community relations Golden Gate National Recreation Area created OPEC approves plan providing for 25 percent government ownership of all Western oil interests operating within Kuwait, Qatar, Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia 1st time Islanders beat Rangers-3-2 Alabama sets offensive record (828 yds), beats Virginia Tech 77-6 French runner Chantal Langlacé sets female world marathon record (2:46:24) in Neuf-Brisach, France

Event of Interest

1975 Covers of both Time & Newsweek picture rock singer Bruce Springsteen

Event of Interest

1978 US President Jimmy Carter signs Hawkins-Humphrey full employment bill

    Islanders score 2 goals within 6 seconds 3 goals within 44 seconds St Vincent & Grenadines becomes independent of UK (National Day) Voluntary Euthanasia Society publishes how-to-do-it suicide guide Astros owner John McMullen replaces GM Tal Smith with Al Rosen Dave Gryllis sets world bicycle speed record of 94.37 kph

Historic Publication

1980 William Safire’s column entitled "The Ayatollah Votes" is published in the New York Times, and was later quoted in a campaign ad for Ronald Reagan in that year's presidential election

    Andrew Young, former UN Ambassador, elected mayor of Atlanta, Georgia The Soviet submarine U 137 runs aground on the east coast of Sweden.

Music Single

1981 Ringo Starr releases single "Wrack My Brain" in US, written and produced by George Harrison

    China announces its population has reached 1 billion plus people IBM ROM is capable of EGA graphics France performs nuclear test at Mururoa atoll USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR Wash State's Rueben Mayes sets col football rec of 357 yards rushing 15th NYC Women's Marathon won by Grete Waitz in 2:28:34 16th NYC Marathon won by Orlando Pizzolato in 2:11:34 Anthony Carter begins NFL streak of 100+ consecutive game receptions

Event of Interest

1985 Billy Martin is fired by Yankees for 4th time

    Hurricane Juan ravages US Gulf states & east coast, 49 die KC Royals beat St Louis Cards, 4 games to 3 in 82nd World Series Thieves steal 9 paintings, including 5 Monet's and 2 Renoir's NY Mets beat Boston Red Sox, 4 games to 3 in 83rd World Series

Event of Interest

    British government deregulates financial markets in a "Big Bang", enhancing London's status as a financial capital while increasing income inequality Lucas Mangopes Democratic Party wins Bophuthatswana elections

Music Premiere

1987 Peter Shaffer's musical "Lettice & Lovage" premieres in London

    South Korean voters overwhelmingly approved a new constitution "Les Miserables" opens at Forrest Theatre, Philadelphia "ET" released to home video (14 million presold) Larry Flynt paid hitman $1M to kill Hefner, Guccione & Sinatra "Michael Feinstein in Concert" closes at Golden NYC after 30 performances Breeders' Cup Horse Racing, Belmont Park winners: Bayakoa, Fly So Free, In The Wings, Meadow Star, Royal Academy, Safely Kept, Unbridled Supreme Soviet of Kirghiz SSR chooses Askar Akayev as republic's first president. "Andre Heller's Wonderhouse" closes at Broadhurst NYC after 9 performances "Homecoming" opens at Criterion Theater NYC for 49 performances World Series Baseball: Minnesota Twins beat Atlanta Braves, 1-0 in 10 in Game 7 at Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome win 2nd title since move to Minneapolis MVP: Twins pitcher Jack Morris Don Baylor appointed 1st manager of Colorado Rockies Fox is to launch Tuesday night network TV, rescheduled to Decemeber

Event of Interest

1997 Intel Corp buys Digital Equipment for $700 million

Election of Interest

1998 Helmut Kohl resigns as Chancellor of Germany after 16 years, following a landslide defeat in elections

    Gunmen open fire in the Armenian Parliament, killing Prime Minister Vazgen Sargsyan, Parliament Chairman Karen Demirchyan, and 6 other members. World Series Baseball: New York Yankees beat Atlanta, 4-1 in Game 4 at Yankee Stadium to sweep Braves and retain title MVP: Yankees closer Mariano Rivera Breeders' Cup Horse Racing, Belmont Park winners: Tiznow, Johannesburg, Unbridled Elaine, Fantastic Light, Val Royal, Banks Hill, Tempera, Squirtle Squirt World Series Baseball: Anaheim beats San Francisco Giants, 4-1 in Game 7 at Edison Field to win Angels' first title MVP: Anaheim 1st baseman Troy Glaus The British ITV Network airs a regional service for the last time in England and Wales, LWT loses its identity completely World Series Baseball: Boston beats St. Louis, 3-0 in Game 4 at Busch Stadium to sweep Cardinals and win Red Sox first title since 1918 MVP: Boston outfielder Manny Ramirez Riots begin in Paris after the deaths of two Muslim teenagers. World Series Baseball: St. Louis beats Detroit Tigers, 4-2 in Game 5 at Busch Stadium to win Cardinals' 10th title in franchise history MVP: Cardinals infielder David Eckstein

Event of Interest

2013 German Red Bull driver Sebastian Vettel wins the Indian Grand Prix at the Buddh International Circuit to clinch his 4th straight F1 World Drivers Championship 6th consecutive GP victory

Event of Interest

2013 American Serena Williams wins her 4th season ending tennis title beats Li Na of China 2–6, 6–3, 6–0 in the WTA Championship final in Istanbul, Turkey

Album Release

2014 Taylor Swift releases her 5th studio album “1989” (2015 Billboard Album of the Year, Grammy Award for Album of the Year 2016)

    "Montevallo" debut album by Sam Hunt is released (American Country Countdown Award Digital Album of the Year 2016, Billboard Album of the Year 2015)

Event of Interest

2015 American soccer star Abby Wambach announces her retirement

Event of Interest

2017 Catalan parliament meets and unilaterally declares independence from Spain

    Gunman shoots and kills 11 people and injures six at the Tree of Life synagogue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in an anti-Semitic attack EPL club Leicester City’s billionaire Thai owner, Vichai Srivaddhanaprabha dies in a helicopter crash in the carpark outside the club’s King Power Stadium following 1-1 draw against West Ham United Australian 7-year old mare Winx wins unprecedented fourth consecutive Cox Plate at Moonee Valley in Melbourne her record 29th-straight win and her 22nd Group 1 racing success LA Dodgers beat the Boston Red Sox, 3-2 in Game 3 of baseball's World Series a record 46 players used by both teams Boston go on to win 4 games to 1 Wes Studi is the first Native American actor to receive an Oscar, an honorary award for career achievement Argentine presidential election won by Alberto Fernandez, defeating sitting President Mauricio Macri California Governor Gavin Newson declares state of emergency with multiple fires across the state, including Sonomoa County's Kincade Fire burning over 30,000 acres

Event of Interest

2019 Tiger Woods scores a wire-to-wire 3-stroke win over Hideki Matsuyama at the inaugural Zozo Championship at Accordia Golf & Country Club to tie Sam Snead's record of 82 PGA victories

A Russo-Persian War in the late 1810s

What if, coming fresh off its victory in the Napoleonic Wars, Russia would have invaded Persia sometime in the late 1810s with the goal of conquering it so that Russia would acquire access to the Indian Ocean? How would such a war have turned out? Also, how would the other Great Powers have reacted to such a Russian move?

In addition, if Russia would have successfully conquered Persia, how would Persia have subsequently developed under Russian rule?


Why ??
access to the warm seas is a bit of a British obsession . the Russian empire was concerned with the river basin flowing north
another concern was to eliminate pesky raiding tribesmen , which they did in central Asia during the 19th century
Persia didn't rate on both accounts ,

They were much more interested in having some control over Manchuria


What river basin was that?

Was it necessary to expand so far south in Central Asia, though?


the Syr ans amu Daria with the chain of Oasis around
in this region if one control the water one control the land and the people

You know the story , taking control of one area inexorably lead to a new set of problems with new neighbors
that's the common fate of Empire , being sucked deeper with each conquest
there were some serious misgiving in going so deep among truly alien people
the response was to set up Cossack settlements , those perennial border guards of the Empire
it meant "that's it , that's our border now "


What if, coming fresh off its victory in the Napoleonic Wars, Russia would have invaded Persia sometime in the late 1810s with the goal of conquering it so that Russia would acquire access to the Indian Ocean? How would such a war have turned out? Also, how would the other Great Powers have reacted to such a Russian move?

In addition, if Russia would have successfully conquered Persia, how would Persia have subsequently developed under Russian rule?

The Persian army was not capable of standing up to the Russian army in the open.

The Russian Army was incapable of logistically supported the conquest of Persia.

I've read a few books on Ottom Turkish and Ottoman Persian wars in this period. neither the Ottomans or Persains had much chance of standing up to an European army in the open, almost no matter what the odds. They often hadlareg Numerical advnatge, 5-1 or more (astounding by any standard) . Not even close reading the accounts.

But these regions were also veyr hard to camapign in, and Russian losses from non combat casualties could be high. And teh Russians did not really have the organization until about 1810-12. The Russians were very heavily stretched economicly in the post Napoleonic war period the immense efforts of Alexander against Napoleon left a lot of debt.

The Indian Ocean overland is not that attractive. Any ships would have to be built there, just no logistical support from Russia proper, no easy communications or trade. Totally different situation compared to Constantinople where it would have been very easy access to comunictaion and trade to Russia proper.

Alexander had made Russia deeply unpopular in the wake of the annexation of Poland. The British no doubt would have over reacted to any conceivable threat to India (no matter how actually unrealistic) There is some chance of an early Crimenia war, depending on exacxtly when and previalling doemestic poltical currents in France and Britain.

"Therefore, the Russians were forced to rely on superior technology, training, and strategy in the face of an overwhelming disparity in numbers. Some estimates put the Persian numerical advantage at five to one."
Russo-Persian War (1804–13) - Wikipedia

Today in History: October 8

Charles the Bald is defeated at the Battle of Andernach.

Belgrade is retaken by the Turks.

King William I of Holland abdicates.

Arrow, a ship flying the British flag, is boarded by Chinese who arrest the crew, thus beginning the Second Chinese War.

The Union is victorious at the Battle of Perryville, the largest Civil War combat to take place in Kentucky.

The Great Chicago Fire begins in southwest Chicago, possibly in a barn owned by Patrick and Katherine O'Leary. Fanned by strong southwesterly winds, the flames raged for more than 24 hours, eventually leveling three and a half square miles and wiping out one-third of the city. Approximately 250 people were killed in the fire 98,500 people were left homeless 17,450 buildings were destroyed.

Journalist Charles Henry Dow, founder of the Wall Street Journal, begins charting trends of stocks and bonds.

Maximilian Harden is sentenced to six months in prison for publishing an article critical of the German Kaiser.

Karl Ludwig Nessler first demonstrates a machine in London that puts permenant waves in hair. The client wears a dozen brass curlers, each wearing two pounds, for the six-hour process.

First Balkan War begins as Montenegro declares war against the Ottoman Empire.

US Army corporal Alvin C. York kills 28 German soldiers and captures 132 in the Argonne Forest promoted to sergeant and awarded US Medal of Honor and French Croix de Guerre.

The U.S. Senate and House of Representatives pass the Volstead Prohibition Enforcement Bill.

First live radio broadcast of a football game Harold W. Arlin was the announcer when KDKA of Pittsburgh broadcast live from Forbes Field as the University of Pittsburgh beat West Virginia University 21–13.

Lilian Gatlin becomes the first woman pilot to fly across the United States.


  • History, 1838–1856, volume A-1 [23 December 1805–30 August 1834]
  • John Whitmer, History, 1831–circa 1847
  • Letter from Oliver Cowdery, 8 April 1831
  • Blessing to Frederick G. Williams, 1 March 1835
  • Book of Commandments, 1833
  • Covenant of Oliver Cowdery and Others, 17 October 1830
  • Doctrine and Covenants, 1835
  • Doctrine and Covenants, 1844
  • History, circa 1841, draft [Draft 3]
  • History, circa June 1839–circa 1841 [Draft 2]
  • John Corrill, A Brief History of the Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints, 1839
  • Letter from Oliver Cowdery, 7 May 1831
  • Letter to Church Leaders in Jackson County, Missouri, 25 June 1833
  • Letterbook 1
  • Lucy Mack Smith, History, 1845
  • Minute Book 2
  • Minutes, 23 June 1834
  • Minutes, 4 August 1831
  • Minutes, 9 June 1830
  • Minutes, Discourse, and Blessings, 1 March 1835
  • Minutes, circa 3–4 June 1831
  • Recommendation for Edward Partridge and Isaac Morley, 1 June 1835
  • Revelation Book 1
  • Revelation Book 2
  • Revelation, September 1830–D [D&C 30:5–8]
  • Revelation, 1 August 1831 [D&C 58]
  • Revelation, 20 July 1831 [D&C 57]
  • Revelation, 5 January 1831 [D&C 39]
  • Revelation, 9 December 1830 [D&C 36]
  • Revelation, October 1830–B [D&C 33]
  • Revelation, October 1830–A [D&C 32]
  • William W. Phelps, “Rise and Progress of the Church of Christ,” April 1833
  • “A History, of the Persecution, of the Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter Day Saints in Missouri,” December 1839–October 1840

United States imposes the draft

The Burke-Wadsworth Act is passed by Congress on September 16, 1940, by wide margins in both houses, and the first peacetime draft in the history of the United States is imposed. Selective Service was born.

The registration of men between the ages of 21 and 36 began exactly one month later, as Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, who had been a key player in moving the Roosevelt administration away from a foreign policy of strict neutrality, began drawing draft numbers out of a glass bowl. The numbers were handed to the president, who read them aloud for public announcement. There were some 20 million eligible young men� percent were rejected the very first year, either for health reasons or illiteracy (20 percent of those who registered were illiterate).

In November 1942, with the United States now a participant in the war, and not merely a neutral bystander, the draft ages expanded men 18 to 37 were now eligible. Blacks were passed over for the draft because of racist assumptions about their abilities and the viability of a mixed-race military. But this changed in 1943, when a “quota” was imposed, meant to limit the numbers of blacks drafted to reflect their numbers in the overall population, roughly 10.6 percent of the whole. Initially, blacks were restricted to “labor units,” but this too ended as the war progressed, when they were finally used in combat.

𠇌onscientious objector” status was granted to those who could demonstrate “sincerity of belief in religious teachings combined with a profound moral aversion to war.” Quakers made up most of the COs, but 75 percent of those Quakers who were drafted fought. COs had to perform alternate service in Civilian Public Service Camps, which entailed long hours of hazardous work for no compensation. About 5,000 to 6,000 men were imprisoned for failing to register or serve the nation in any form these numbers were comprised mostly of Jehovah’s Witnesses.

By war’s end, approximately 34 million men had registered, and 10 million served with the military.

Watch the video: WWE Smackdown 16 October 2021 Full Show Roman Reigns vs Brock Lesnar Contract Signing (August 2022).