The story

Geography of Bangladesh - History


Bangladesh

Bangladesh is a low-lying, riverine country located in South Asia with a largely marshy jungle coastline of 600 kilometers (370 mi.) on the northern littoral of the Bay of Bengal. Formed by a deltaic plain at the confluence of the Ganges (Padma), Brahmaputra (Jamuna), and Meghna Rivers and their tributaries, Bangladesh's alluvial soil is highly fertile but vulnerable to flood and drought. Hills rise above the plain only in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in the far southeast and the Sylhet division in the northeast.

Climate: Straddling the Tropic of Cancer, Bangladesh has a subtropical monsoonal climate characterized by heavy seasonal rainfall, moderately warm temperatures, and high humidity. Natural calamities, such as floods, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, and tidal bores affect the country almost every year. Bangladesh also is affected by major cyclones--on average 16 times a decade.


Bangladesh

The huge delta region formed at the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra River systems - now referred to as Bangladesh - was a loosely incorporated outpost of various empires centered on the Gangetic plain for much of the first millennium A.D. Muslim conversions and settlement in the region began in the 10th century, primarily from Arab and Persian traders and preachers. Europeans established trading posts in the area in the 16th century. Eventually the area known as Bengal, primarily Hindu in the western section and mostly Muslim in the eastern half, became part of British India. Partition in 1947 resulted in an eastern wing of Pakistan in the Muslim-majority area, which became East Pakistan. Calls for greater autonomy and animosity between the eastern and western wings of Pakistan led to a Bengali independence movement. That movement, led by the Awami League (AL) and supported by India, won the independence war for Bangladesh in 1971.

The post-independence AL government faced daunting challenges and in 1975 it was overthrown by the military, triggering a series of military coups that resulted in a military-backed government and subsequent creation of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) in 1978. That government also ended in a coup in 1981, followed by military-backed rule until democratic elections occurred in 1991. The BNP and AL have alternated in power since 1991, with the exception of a military-backed, emergency caretaker regime that suspended parliamentary elections planned for January 2007 in an effort to reform the political system and root out corruption. That government returned the country to fully democratic rule in December 2008 with the election of the AL and Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA. In January 2014, the incumbent AL won the national election by an overwhelming majority after the BNP boycotted the election, which extended HASINA's term as prime minister. In December 2018, HASINA secured a third consecutive term (fourth overall) with the AL coalition securing 96% of available seats, amid widespread claims of election irregularities. With the help of international development assistance, Bangladesh has reduced the poverty rate from over half of the population to less than a third, achieved Millennium Development Goals for maternal and child health, and made great progress in food security since independence. The economy has grown at an annual average of about 6% for the last two decades and the country reached World Bank lower-middle income status in 2014.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.


Bangladesh Facts History And Geography


এখানে এত পর্যটক আসার গোপন রহস্য কি? Visiting Bangladesh | Guide Tours Bangladesh | Bangladesh Facts source : www.britannica.com
History of Bangladesh - Wikipedia

Civilisational history of Bangladesh dates back over four millennia, to the Chalcolithic. The country's early documented history featured successions of Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms and empires, vying for regional dominance.

Article History. Home Geography & Travel Countries of the World. In the northeast and southeast—in the Sylhet and Chittagong Hills areas, respectively—the alluvial plains give place to ridges, running mainly north-south, that form part of the mountains that separate Bangladesh from.

History. News and Current Events. Geography. Bangladesh, on the northern coast of the Bay of Bengal, is surrounded by India, with a small common border with Myanmar in the southeast. The country is low-lying riverine land traversed by the many branches and tributaries of the Ganges and.

Brush up on your geography and finally learn what countries are in Eastern Europe with our maps. International disputes: Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea Indian Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to.

source : www.mapsofworld.com
50 Amazing Facts About Bangladesh NationFacts.net

50 Fascinating Facts about Bangladesh. The country of Bangladesh is located in South Asia. Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary republic with a president and a prime minister. Demographics. Economics. Geography. Government. History. Population.

Facts about Bangladesh land, capital city, tradition, people, language, currency, population, largest cities, history, government, economy, political People's Republic of Bangladesh is located in South Asia. It is a sovereign state and shares its borders with India from all the sides except for Burma in the.

Present-day Bangladesh came out as a sovereign country in 1971 after breaking away and gaining independence from Pakistan in the Bangladesh liberation war. Its early history was characterized by internal fighting, a succession of Indian empires, and a scuffle between Buddhism and Hinduism for.

Bangladesh facts. . 1. In this country there is a terrible ford, which, in combination with poor health care Lentils and rice are added from the vegetables. Geography in Bangladesh. 1. In areas where there is no 1. The most popular sports are cricket, football and badminton. History of Bangladesh.

Folkerepublikken Bangladesh er et parlamentarisk demokrati, med presidenten som statssjef og statsminister som regjeringssjef. Presidenten velges til en femårsperiode og kan tjene totalt to valgperioder. Alle borgere over 18 år kan stemme.

Bangladesh, geography and facts explained. Geograhy, facts, local customs and foodie guide. All explained in videos 8 to 15 minutes, very good, informative and funny videos that will ensure you see the videos to the end. The videos are produced by Geography now, thanks for the videos and keep.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: Bangladesh adopted the metric system as of 1 July 1982. Customary numerical units include the lakh (equal to 100,000) and Situated in South Asia, Bangladesh, before it became an independent state, was the eastern province of Pakistan, known as East Bengal and, later.

source : www.myanmar-embassy-tokyo.net
11 Amazing Facts About Bangladesh - Global Storybook

Bangladesh's history includes numerous heroic sacrifices to preserve our native language. On February 21st in 1952, numerous brave citizens Bangladesh has six fully distinct seasons, and it's sometimes called "the playground of seasons". Those six seasons are the Summer, the Monsoon, the.

Explore information about Bangladesh - Bangladesh cities, states and territories, history, geography, flag, facts, climate, natural resources, important Bangladesh has its name depicted in the books of history (though not by the name of Bangladesh) as early as the 326 BC when Alexander the Great.

In ancient history, Bangladesh was ruled by a succession of animist, Buddhist and Hindu empires, including the Pala dynasty in the 8th century, whose kings constructed the vast monastic complex at Paharpur. Hinduism experienced a major revival under the Sena dynasty in the 12th century, but it.

See all the most unique and interesting Bangladesh facts in this list. That is right, 5% of the total Bangladeshi population does not live within its borders but instead migrated to find job opportunities, at a rate of half a million annually in the last few years, how is that for an interesting Bangladesh fact?

Learn some interesting information about Bangladesh while enjoying a range of fun facts and trivia that's perfect for kids! Read about the unique geography of Bangladesh, its population, the national animal, popular sports, history and much more.

6. "Bangladeshi" is the demonym, and "Bengali" refers to the ethnic group and language. Well, that's all our Bangladesh facts for now, and we hope you've found this post interesting, insightful, and informative! Do you have any questions, feedback, or other facts about Bangladesh we should.

source : www.everyculture.com
Wikizero - Geography of Bangladesh

The physical geography of Bangladesh is varied and has an area characterised by two distinctive features: a broad deltaic plain subject to The only exceptions to Bangladesh's low elevations are the Chittagong Hills in the southeast, the Low Hills of Sylhet in the northeast, and highlands in the north.

40 Facts About Bangladesh. Bangladesh, a country of lush greenery and many waterways. On the southern coast, the Sundarbans, an enormous mangrove forest shared with India, are home to the Royal Bengal tiger. Here are 40 facts about Bangladesh .

The History of Bangladesh 2 The history of Bangladesh is often described as a history of conflicts, power shifts and disasters. Fact is, Wally Fagan stood just under six feet and weighed just over two hundred forty pounds, but he was wholly intimidated by the slim woman walking his way.

Bangladesh Geography and Facts. Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India. The physiography of Bangladesh is characterized by two distinctive features: a broad deltaic plain subject to frequent flooding, and a small hilly region crossed by swiftly flowing rivers.

Geography - note: most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel NOTE: 1) The information regarding Bangladesh on this page is re-published from the 2020 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence.

Brief facts about Bangladesh. Bangladesh History: Prelude to Independence. The Birth of Bangladesh. Economic Exploitation. Bibliography of Books on Bangladesh Liberation War. Bangladesh History: Links and Resources.

Facts about Bangladesh the population, geography, history and economy. Europeans began to set up trading posts in the area of Bangladesh in the 16th century eventually the British came to dominate the region and it became part of British India.

Bangladesh Facts & Worksheets. The official name for the country of Bangladesh is the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The official and national language spoken in Bangladesh is Bengali. It is globally known as Bangla. Bengali is a Indo-Aryan language, coming from a major language family of.

See more ideas about bangladesh, geography, bangladeshi. Get information, facts, and pictures about Bangladesh at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Bangladesh easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.

GEOGRAPHY. Bangladesh Table of Contents. The physiography of Bangladesh is characterized by two distinctive features: a broad deltaic plain subject to frequent flooding, and a small hilly region crossed by swiftly flowing rivers.

Bangladesh is a country in South Asia. It is a beautiful country with lush greenery and lots of watercourses. Here are 40 fun facts about Bangladesh. The word Bangladesh means "the people of Bengal" in the local Bangla language.


Geography of Bangladesh - History

The physiography of Bangladesh is characterized by two distinctive features: a broad deltaic plain subject to frequent flooding, and a small hilly region crossed by swiftly flowing rivers. The country has an area of 144,000 square kilometers and extends 820 kilometers north to south and 600 kilometers east to west. Bangladesh is bordered on the west, north, and east by a 2,400-kilometer land frontier with India and, in the southeast, by a short land and water frontier (193 kilometers) with Burma. On the south is a highly irregular deltaic coastline of about 600 kilometers, fissured by many rivers and streams flowing into the Bay of Bengal. The territorial waters of Bangladesh extend 12 nautical miles, and the exclusive economic zone of the country is 200 nautical miles.

Roughly 80 percent of the landmass is made up of fertile alluvial lowland called the Bangladesh Plain. The plain is part of the larger Plain of Bengal, which is sometimes called the Lower Gangetic Plain. Although altitudes up to 105 meters above sea level occur in the northern part of the plain, most elevations are less than 10 meters above sea level elevations decrease in the coastal south, where the terrain is generally at sea level. With such low elevations and numerous rivers, water--and concomitant flooding--is a predominant physical feature. About 10,000 square kilometers of the total area of Bangladesh is covered with water, and larger areas are routinely flooded during the monsoon season.

The only exceptions to Bangladesh's low elevations are the Chittagong Hills in the southeast, the Low Hills of Sylhet in the northeast, and highlands in the north and northwest. The Chittagong Hills constitute the only significant hill system in the country and, in effect, are the western fringe of the northsouth mountain ranges of Burma and eastern India. The Chittagong Hills rise steeply to narrow ridge lines, generally no wider than 36 meters, 600 to 900 meters above sea level. At 1,046 meters, the highest elevation in Bangladesh is found at Keokradong, in the southeastern part of the hills. Fertile valleys lie between the hill lines, which generally run north-south. West of the Chittagong Hills is a broad plain, cut by rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal, that rises to a final chain of low coastal hills, mostly below 200 meters, that attain a maximum elevation of 350 meters. West of these hills is a narrow, wet coastal plain located between the cities of Chittagong in the north and Cox's Bazar in the south.

About 67 percent of Bangladesh's nonurban land is arable. Permanent crops cover only 2 percent, meadows and pastures cover 4 percent, and forests and woodland cover about 16 percent. The country produces large quantities of quality timber, bamboo, and sugarcane. Bamboo grows in almost all areas, but high-quality timber grows mostly in the highland valleys. Rubber planting in the hilly regions of the country was undertaken in the 1980s, and rubber extraction had started by the end of the decade. A variety of wild animals are found in the forest areas, such as in the Sundarbans on the southwest coast, which is the home of the worldfamous Royal Bengal Tiger. The alluvial soils in the Bangladesh Plain are generally fertile and are enriched with heavy silt deposits carried downstream during the rainy season.


Bangladesh

Bangladesh is a country in south-central Asia. It is one of the most crowded countries in the world. Although 92 countries are larger than Bangladesh, only 7 have more people. Dhaka is the capital. National anthem of Bangladesh

Geography

Bangladesh covers a total area of 56,977 square miles (147,570 square kilometers). It is surrounded by India to the west, north, and northeast Myanmar (Burma) to the southeast and the Bay of Bengal to the south. The country lies mainly in the delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra (Jamuna) rivers.

Bangladesh has a tropical monsoon climate, with heavy summer rain and high summer temperatures. Damaging floods occur every two or three summers. In 1991 a cyclone killed more than 100,000 people. The winters, however, are dry and cool.

Plants and Animals

Forests cover less than 10 percent of Bangladesh. Plant life includes groves of mango, jackfruit, and coconut trees. Part of the Sundarbans, a mangrove swamp, is in southwestern Bangladesh. The Sundarbans is one of the largest mangrove forests in the world and was named a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1997.

The country’s animals include royal Bengal tigers, rhesus monkeys, leopards, and sloth bears. About 750 types of birds nest in Bangladesh, and snakes are also common.

People

Almost 98 percent of the people are Bengalis. They speak Bengali, the state language. West Bengal, a neighboring state in India, shares the Bengali culture.

Islam is the main religion in Bangladesh. Followers of Islam, called Muslims, make up about 89 percent of the population. About 10 percent of the people are Hindus. The rest are mostly Buddhists and Christians.

Economy

Bangladesh is a poor country. Many of the people live in rural areas, and more than half the population make their living by farming. The main crops are rice, jute, potatoes, and wheat. Goats and cattle are the main livestock.

The service sector contributes the most to Bangladesh’s economy. Services include telecommunications, education, and health. Manufacturing is a much smaller part of the economy, but Bangladesh is one of the world’s largest producers of jute fibers. These fibers are used to make fabric and twine. Manufacturers also make clothing, shoes, tobacco and food products, chemicals, and iron and steel.

History

Bangladesh is part of a historic region called Bengal. From the 700s to the 1100s Buddhist and Hindu kings ruled Bengal. Muslims invaded about 1200. The region remained largely independent until the 1600s. Then the Mughal Empire, which controlled India at the time, made Bengal one of its provinces. The British took control of all of India in the 1700s. They ruled the area as a colony until 1947.

After the British left, the colony of India was divided into two independent countries: India and Pakistan. India lay between Pakistan’s two provinces—East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and West Pakistan (now Pakistan). The people of East and West Pakistan spoke different languages and had different cultures. The provinces struggled for power. War broke out in 1971. About 1 million Bengalis were killed, and millions more fled to India. India helped East Pakistan defeat West Pakistan. Then East Pakistan became the independent country of Bangladesh.

Bangladesh held its first national election in 1973, but the military soon took over the government. Beginning in 1991 Bangladesh held a series of free elections. However, the results often led to protests and violence. This continued well into the 2000s.

In 2017 a wave of more than 700,000 refugees entered Bangladesh from Myanmar. The refugees were Rohingya people. They were fleeing the genocide, or mass killings, being waged against them by Myanmar’s government.


Geopolitically of Bangladesh

South Asia is a region of great significance in the current world politics. Geo-strategically and Geo-economically, this region plays a vital role in the world economy.

Geopolitically Bangladesh is very important in the world politics. Bangladesh also plays an important role in the perspectives of geo-strategy and geo-economics in south Asia.

In the beginning of this assignment, I would like to mention the potentials and limitations of Bangladesh in the context of South Asia in the geo-political perspective.

Potentials and Limitations of South Asia & Bangladesh:

There are some important potentials as well as some limitations of South Asia. In brief, the limitations of South Asia are- border dispute, water and environment issues (collective action problem), trade imbalance, insurgency, extremism, women and children trafficking etc. The potentials are- trading, sharing culture, connectivity, track- 2 diplomacy.

In brief, the limitations of Bangladesh are- border issues, energy crisis, dense population, ethnic conflict (CHT), insurgency, small territory, natural disaster (like flood, cyclone), technological backwardness, locked by India etc. The potentials are- Chittagong & Mongla ports, connectivity (with seven sisters), Asian highway, Sundarbans, jute, carbon trade, tourism, alluvial land etc.

Border Issues of Bangladesh:

On the basis of above potentials & limitations, here, I would like to describe about border disputes of Bangladesh in the context of South Asia through geo-politically, geo-economically & geo-strategically.

Geo-politically Bangladesh:

Geo-politics of Bangladesh refers to the inter-state politics of the country which is dependent on its territory. Bangladesh has importance in both South Asia and in the world for its geographical location. Bangladesh is enclosed almost entirely by India. It shares both land & maritime borders with India & Myanmar. But a number of issues have arisen relating to Bangladesh’s border with both these countries.

In some places, Bangladesh’s border with India is not specifically demarcated & sometimes it creates strain in Bangladesh- India relationship. There are three types of border, such as- porous border, adverse possession and enclave problem.

The major land border crisis are border killing & illegal migration. The pressures for emigration will increase manifold, with India being first in line to face the brunt of this pressure. The various agencies claims that there is about 2 million of Bangladeshi illegal immigrants are staying in different parts of India. On the other hand, the major maritime border crisis are water distribution e.g. Farakka, Tista barrage & adverse sea border possession. Moreover, geographical features of this deltaic nation have emerged from the changing courses of three of Asia’s great rivers: the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna. Bangladesh shares 54 rivers with India but agreement has signed only about 2 rivers. This is a political issue for both countries.

6.5 k.m. land border is not specifically demarcated between Bangladesh & India. 551.8 acres area of Bangladesh has in the adverse possession of India and 226.81 acres area of India has in the adverse possession of Bangladesh. Enclave problem is also a significance issue in Indo-Bangladesh relation. Thus, there are overlapping claims of the same pieces. [Ref: The Daily Star, 6 th June 2010]

The border disputes arise with Myanmar primarily because of un-demarcated boundary. Rohingya refugees from Myanmar living in Bangladesh face an increased risk. The nature of border conflicts between India & Bangladesh and Myanmar & Bangladesh is defined by the attacks and killing of Bangladeshi peasants and innocent border dwellers. Bangladesh media accused the BSF of abducting 5 Bangladeshi children (8-15), from the Haripur , Upazilla in Thakurgaon district of Bangladesh in 2010. They were setting fishing nets near the border. [Ref: The Daily Star,24 th July 2010]

BSF allegedly killed a 15 years old Bangladeshi girl on 7 th of January 2011 while she and her father was climbing the Indo- Bangladesh barrier by using a ladder.

[Ref: http//blog.akmnhid.com/country Bangladesh/bsf-killed-innocent-bangladeshi –girl-117.html]

Geo-economically Bangladesh:

Geo-economy of Bangladesh refers to the inter-state economy of the country which is dependent on its territory. Bangladesh may gain economic development by proper utilization of it’s resources those are in the mainland as well as in the sea.

South Asian countries are dependent on external sources of finance, investment & technology for their indigenous development. The South Asian countries are substantial world producers of primary products such as- jute, tea, leather goods, readymade garments & handicrafts especially Bangladesh.

The balance of trade is enormously adverse against Bangladesh. There are two types of trade- legal & illegal, where illegal trade is conducted through the porous & un-demarcated border ways. The economic activities- both legal & illegal have made serious impacts on economy, culture, security, health & other sectors of Bangladesh borders & Bangladesh in general.

At present legal economic activities are conducted through various land ports nevertheless smuggling remains a lucrative & ever expanding business along Bangladesh- India border and Bangladesh- Myanmar for immediate high profit.

The illegal trading items are smuggled from Bangladesh and smuggled in to Bangladesh through India and Myanmar borders (both land & maritime). Small arms, sugar, onion, rice, vegetable oil, fake notes, saving creams, cosmetics, motor parts & bike etc are the major smuggling goods.

People of different socio-economic & political backgrounds are involved in smuggling as they take it as profession. From Bangladesh’s point of view, smuggling is detrimental to its national economy as it has damaging impact on its domestic industries. Also, the government loses huge amount of revenue as a result of smuggling.

[Ref: Bangladesh and its Borders: A Preliminary Study of Cross-border Issues by Bhuian Md. Monoar Kabir]

A significant pathway to strengthening economic interaction between Bangladesh and India lies in promoting cross-border investments. Bangladesh has to decrease it’s huge trade imbalance with India and China. Connectivity with her neighbor states is also important for trading and economic development.

Geo-­­­strategically Bangladesh:

Geo-strategy of Bangladesh is the strategy of the country which has taken to protect her national interest and geographical integrity. Geo-strategy of Bangladesh is more important in the context of South Asia for its geographical location. Various ethnic groups create tensions along the Bangladesh- India borders and the Bangladesh- Myanmar borders and raising concerns for security among Bangladeshi population and governments.

South Asia is one geo-strategic unit with China overlooking it from the north .It also shares a common culture, historical-civilization heritage that, through the process of political divide, has turned the region into “a region of mistrust”. As Bangladesh is locked by India in three sides, India always shows aggressive and hegemonic approach to Bangladesh, so to ensure security it has to keep good bilateral relation with India.

China is the rising power of this region and will obviously keep influence on the other states of this arena. So, Bangladesh has to keep a good relation with China by taking the “Look East policy” .Maritime boundary demarcation is essential in this regard to solve the maritime boundary dispute with China and India.

There are two issues that may guide our relationship with other countries of South Asia. These two are: one, our future national security will impact on others foreign policy of this region. Two, Chittagong port facility to monitor growing Indian and Chinese presence in the region. Indian government has already constructed border fencing to prevent illegal threat and insurgency, so Bangladesh government should be more careful in this issue.

Bangladesh Naval Force should be stronger to ensure the security of the maritime boundary which will be a positive step in protecting our sovereignty.

Summary and Recommendation:

Banglades , a region of South Asia, has a significance role in the perspectives of geo-politics, geo-economics and geo-strategy for the geographical location. Both potentials & limitations have played a great role here.

Border crisis or border dispute is the vital issue to the development process of Bangladesh. The dwellers of the porous borders are involved in illicit activities across the borders, make the border area hot beds of illegal activities including gun running & drug trafficking , guerilla activities and Islamic militant activities .


General Overviews and Textbooks

A number of general overviews of rural geography are available for nonspecialists and beginning students, primarily in the form of textbooks. Early texts such as Clout 1972 and Gilg 1985 are now more useful for their historical value in documenting the evolution of key questions and concerns in rural geography. The two best contemporary introductions are Woods 2005, which is a textbook overview of central themes organized under the rubric of rural restructuring, and Woods 2011, an in-depth exploration of the many different dimensions to rurality. The former is more appropriate for the nonspecialist and undergraduate student the latter, for graduate students and scholars interested in learning more about the conceptualization of “rural.” Hart 1998 offers a modern introduction to rural geography, from the perspective of traditional American cultural geography (e.g., loosely based on the approach of Carl Sauer), which along with regionalism dominated the geographical study of the rural prior to the 1970s. Although not a textbook or formal overview, Bell 1994, an ethnographic account of life in the town of Childerley, is an accessible and prescient ethnographic introduction to many of the issues and themes that would emerge shortly thereafter in contemporary rural geography.

Bell, Michael M. Childerley: Nature and Morality in a Country Village. Morality and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

A highly readable ethnographic study of Childerley, pseudonym for a village in Hampshire, England, that focuses broadly on the social experience of nature and provides a wonderful introduction to many of the general themes in contemporary rural geography (e.g., identity, experience, class, gender).

Clout, Hugh D. Rural Geography: An Introductory Survey. Pergamon Oxford Geographies. Oxford: Pergamon, 1972.

The first textbook to cover rural geography as a distinctive subfield, this title still stands out as part of the intellectual “bedrock” of rural geography. Chapters on population, urbanization, land-use planning, agriculture, transportation, and manufacturing mark the subfield’s early preoccupations. Focuses primarily on European examples.

Gilg, Andrew W. An Introduction to Rural Geography. London and Baltimore: Edward Arnold, 1985.

Introduces rural geography through a comprehensive survey of scholarship published in the previous decade, as the subfield entered a period of rapid growth. Although dated, the book is a useful waymarker particularly telling is Gilg’s argument in the final chapter that rural geography was not yet a coherent discipline and that it needed to focus on developing theory and a more precise definition of “rural.” Reprinted in 1991.

Hart, John Fraser. The Rural Landscape. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

A complete update on Hart’s earlier (1975) title, The Look of the Land, this book represents a contemporary expression of rural-landscape interpretation based on the sensibility of Carl Sauer’s approach to cultural geography. Focuses heavily on the empirical elements of the rural landscape: rocks, plants, land division, farm structures, and towns.

Woods, Michael. Rural Geography: Processes, Responses and Experiences in Rural Restructuring. London: SAGE, 2005.

Written primarily for undergraduate students and nonspecialists, this textbook provides an introduction to rural geography through the lens of rural restructuring. Offers comparative case studies as well as suggestions for further reading and relevant web resources at the end of each chapter.

Woods, Michael. Rural. Key Ideas in Geography. London and New York: Routledge, 2011.

Part of Routledge’s Key Ideas in Geography series, Woods here provides an up-to-date survey of the literature on the notion of “rural,” in a detailed but accessible account. The work represents a more advanced and exhaustive review of contemporary rural scholarship than Woods 2005. It is useful to compare this text to the similar effort to survey the field made in Gilg 1985, over a quarter-century earlier.

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General Topography

Most of Bangladesh lies on the alluvial lowlands of the Plain of Bengal. These fertile flats are meandered by drainages sourced in the epic heights of the Himalayas to the north. Some 700 rivers lace mostly southward across the vast floodplains, spilling their banks when engorged with snowmelt or monsoonal outwash. The Ganges enters from India to the west to join the Jamuna River, the name given the great Brahmaputra watercourse from the mouth of the Tista River downstream. The Padma joins the Meghna River shortly before splitting into numerous arms in the convoluted delta coast of southern Bangladesh. These rivers and their associated streams create the Mouths of the Ganges in the Bay of Bengal, the world's biggest delta. A small portion of Bangladesh, mainly in the extreme southeast, features hilly uplands.


A country which is over-populated &ndash Bangladesh

Bangladesh is situated in both the eastern and northern hemispheres and is located on the Indian subcontinent in south-central Asia. Bangladesh is bordered by the Bay of Bengal, and the countries of India and Burma (Myanmar).

Low-lying Bangladesh is frequently flooded and affected by tropical storms. With few natural resources, the country depends on agriculture, with over 40 per-cent of the population working in this primary industry.

Bangladesh has the 8th largest population in the world with 163,317,317 or 2.11% of the Earth&rsquos inhabitants living there in 2019. However, the country only has the 92nd largest land area which means population density is high.

With a high birth rate and a low death rate, as shown in the graph below, the population growth rate is around 1.04%. The result of this is over-population because Bangladesh has more people than its resources can support.

GDP per person is low in Bangladesh, meaning people do not generally have a good standard of living. The graph below illustrates the difference in GDP between Bangladesh and other countries. Despite rising rapidly recently, it is still significantly below other countries.

A significant number of people in Bangladesh are under-employed, meaning they don&rsquot work full time. Wages are also low.

According to UNESCO Bangladesh has an adult literacy rate of just 72.89%. While the male literacy rate is 75.7%, for females is 70.09%. This is the result of no free or compulsory education system meaning few people have qualifications.

Access to healthcare is also poor in Bangladesh resulting in a high death rate and infant mortality rate.

In the future, Bangladesh will struggle to cope with its growing population. The main challenges the country will face include:

  • feeding the population
  • deforestation in the Himalayas leading to increased flooding
  • overcrowding and pollution in the capital, Dhaka
  • the increasing likelihood of stronger, more devastating tropical storms
  • the cost of repairs from flooding and tropical storms means less money is invested in public services

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Inventing Boundaries: gender, politics and the Partition of India edited by Mushirul Hasan (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000)

Pakistan as a peasant utopia: the communalization of class politics in East Bengal, 1920-1947 by Taj ul-Islam Hashmi (Boulder, Colorado Oxford: Westview, 1992)

The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the demand for Pakistan by Ayesha Jalal (Cambridge University Press, 1985)

The Partitions of Memory: the afterlife of the division of India edited by S. Kaul (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001)

Borders & boundaries: women in India's partition by Menon, Ritu & Bhasin, Kamla (New Delhi: Kali for Women, 1998)

Remembering Partition: violence, nationalism and history in India by Gyanendra Pandey (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001)

'Reviews: The high politics of India's Partition: the revisionist perspective' by Asim Roy (Modern Asian Studies, 24, 2 (1990), pp. 385-415)

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